• HARSHADA KADAM Department of Pharmaceutics, Sandip Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mahiravani, Nashik 422213, Maharashtra, India
  • GAURI KAPHARE Department of Pharmaceutics, Sandip Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mahiravani, Nashik 422213, Maharashtra, India
  • RUPALI AVHAD Department of Pharmaceutics, Sandip Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mahiravani, Nashik 422213, Maharashtra, India
  • PRAJWAL AHER Department of Pharmaceutics, Sandip Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mahiravani, Nashik 422213, Maharashtra, India
  • NIKHIL GADE Department of Pharmaceutics, Sandip Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mahiravani, Nashik 422213, Maharashtra, India
  • MANOJ BAJAIT Department of Pharmaceutics, Sandip Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mahiravani, Nashik 422213, Maharashtra, India
  • SWATI TALELE Department of Pharmaceutics, Sandip Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mahiravani, Nashik 422213, Maharashtra, India
  • ANIL JADHAV Department of Pharmaceutics, Sandip Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mahiravani, Nashik 422213, Maharashtra, India




SARS-Cov-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus) that initially came to notice in December 2019 is the agent responsible for COVID-19 is still spreading rapidly worldwide and it is presently a potent danger to the world and also to the economy. Patients with COVID-19 are still at risk of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), respiratory failure, and death. Those patients whose aged more than sixty years with comorbidities, children, and healthcare workers are highly vulnerable to this virus patient shows various symptoms most commonly cough, fever, difficulty in breathing, fatigue, sore throat. The infection could be categorized into three stages: mild infection, the pulmonary stage, and the inflammatory stage. As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, it has been clear that infection caused due to SARS-Cov-2 might be responsible for the unpredicted long-term health consequences. In addition to this, it has acute respiratory manifestations, adversely SARS-Cov-2 also affects the other organ systems. However, there is limited to the management of COVID-19 related conditions of the extrapulmonary systems. After recovery, patients remain at risk for lung disease, heart disease, and mental ailment. There may be long-term consequences of adverse effects they observed in the course of COVID-19 and during its treatment. This review provided information about the extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19 that may impair the urinary, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, hematological, hematopoietic, neurological, or reproductive systems. Also, the main purpose of this article is to describe the current concern of the extrapulmonary complications that were caused due to COVID-19 and also to improve the management and diagnosis of these patients.


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How to Cite

KADAM, H., KAPHARE, G., AVHAD, R., AHER, P., GADE, N., BAJAIT, M., TALELE, S., & JADHAV, A. (2021). LONG-TERM IMMUNOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF COVID-19 ON HEALTH. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 13(6). https://doi.org/10.22159/ijap.2021v13i6.42311



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