A REVIEW OF TREATMENT, RISK FACTORS, AND INCIDENCE OF COLORECTAL CANCER

Authors

  • FATIMA S. ALARYANI Biology Department, Faculty of Sciences, Jeddah University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • SALMA SALEH TURKI ALRDAHE Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Tabuk, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.22159/ijap.2022v14i1.42820

Keywords:

colorectal cancer, mortality, surgery, chemotherapy, incidence, screening

Abstract

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is considered as the third most frequent cancer in the world and the incidence increases with increasing age. CRC accounts nearly 9 % of all cancer incidence, with an estimated 1.4 million cases happening in 2012. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of incidence, risk factors, screening strategies, and treatment of colorectal cancer. We searched the studies in five English databases, including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, and Google Scholar with no limitation in publication time to find all papers regarding the colorectal cancers. Papers with any language were included in the first step of search if they had an English abstract. We used the following words and terms including: colorectal cancer, treatment, risk factor, diagnosis, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery. Geographical variations and different time courses in the CRC incidence indicate that environmental factors and lifestyle are major factors in the development of this disease. The main preventable risk factors for CRC are nutrition, high-fat diet, low-fiber diet, obesity and physical inactivity, smoking and alcohol consumption, aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and some non-preventable risk factors such as age, gender, race, and diabetes mellitus. Colonoscopy remains the study of choice to diagnose colorectal cancer. Prior to any treatment, CT imaging of chest, abdomen and pelvis with contrast is needed for staging patient’s CRC. The preferred option for localized colorectal cancer is surgery (etc, laparoscopic surgery, colostomy for rectal cancer); whereas the adjuvant chemotherapy is generally recommended for patients with lymph node metastases.  Targeted treatment of colorectal cancer by monoclonal antibodies are important bioengineered proteins that can help the body's natural immune response to detect, attack, and kill cancer cells. Monoclonal antibodies may be used alone or in combination with other treatments such as chemotherapy. CRC accounts an important health problem worldwide that is estimated to increase because of the growth and aging of the population, and because of the adoption of at-risk manners and lifestyle, particularly in economically less developed countries. Screening has been confirmed to significantly decrease mortality and can prevent the onset of the disease. More international efforts are required to situate into practice targeted prevention approaches that might reduce the burden of CRC worldwide.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Higginson J, Muir CS, Munoz N. Human cancer: epidemiology and environmental causes. Cambridge University Press; 1992 Jun 4.

Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E, Hao Y, Xu J, Murray T, et al. Cancer statistics, 2008. CA; 2008.58(2):71- 96.

Haraldsdottir S, Einarsdottir HM, Smaradottir A, Gunnlaugsson A, Halfdanarson TR. Colorectal cancer-review. Laeknabladid. 2014;100(2):75-82.

RahimiPordanjani S, Baeradeh N, Lotfi MH, Pourmohammadi B. Epidemiology of colorectal cancer: incidence, mortality, survival rates and risk factors. Razi Journal of Medical Sciences. 2016;23(144):41-50.

Marley AR, Nan H. Epidemiology of colorectal cancer. International journal of molecular epidemiology and genetics. 2016;7(3):105.

Rawla P, Sunkara T, Barsouk A. Epidemiology of colorectal cancer: Incidence, mortality, survival, and risk factors. Przegladgastroenterologiczny. 2019;14(2):89.

Favoriti P, Carbone G, Greco M, Pirozzi F, Pirozzi RE, Corcione F. Worldwide burden of colorectal cancer: a review. Updates in surgery. 2016;68(1):7-11.

Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, Ferlay J, Ward E, Forman D. Global cancer statistics. CA; 2011. 61(2):69-90.

Sandler RS. Epidemiology and risk factors for colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology Clinics. 1996 Dec 1;25(4):717-35.

Hsing AW, McLaughlin JK, Chow WH, Schuman LM, Co Chien HT, Gridley G, Bjelke E, Wacholder S, Blot WJ. Risk factors for colorectal cancer in a prospective study among US white men. International Journal of Cancer. 1998 Aug 12;77(4):549-53.

Crawford-Williams F, March S, Ireland MJ, Rowe A, Goodwin B, Hyde MK, Chambers SK, Aitken JF, Dunn J. Geographical variations in the clinical management of colorectal cancer in Australia: a systematic review. Frontiers in oncology. 2018;8:116.

Ahmad A, Gunjan HS. Novel Technologies for Cancer Treatment. Journal of Critical Reviews. 2020;7(10):1107-11.

Biagi JJ, Raphael MJ, Mackillop WJ, Kong W, King WD, Booth CM. Association between time to initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy and survival in colorectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Jama. 2011; 305(22):2335-42.

Zlobec I, Lugli A. Prognostic and predictive factors in colorectal cancer. Postgraduate medical journal. 2008 Aug 1;84(994):403-11.

Poornakala S, Prema NS. A study of morphological prognostic factors in colorectal cancer and survival analysis. Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology. 2019 Jan 1;62(1):36.

Johnson CM, Wei C, Ensor JE, Smolenski DJ, Amos CI, Levin B, Berry DA. Meta-analyses of colorectal cancer risk factors. Cancer causes & control. 2013;24(6):1207-22.

Ryan-Harshman M, Aldoori W. Diet and colorectal cancer: Review of the evidence. Canadian Family Physician. 2007;53(11):1913-20.

Wakai K, Hirose K, Matsuo K, Ito H, Kuriki K, Suzuki T, et al. Dietary risk factors for colon and rectal cancers: a comparative case-control study. Journal of epidemiology; 2006.16(3):125-35.

Navarro A, Muñoz SE, Lantieri MJ, del Pilar Diaz M, Cristaldo PE, de Fabro SP, et al. Meat cooking habits and risk of colorectal cancer in Cordoba, Argentina. Nutrition; 2004;20(10):873-7.

Moshfeghi K, Mohammad-Beigi A, HamediSanani D, Bahrami M. Evaluation the role of nutritional and individual factors in colorectal cancer. ZJRMS; 2010.13(4):12-7.

Keyghobadi N, Lotfi M, Fallahzadeh H, Akhondi M. Nutritional Factors Related to Colorectal Cancer in the Residents of Yazd City, Iran. Journal of Health and Development,. 2013;2(3):171-81.

Martínez ME. Primary prevention of colorectal cancer: lifestyle, nutrition ,exercise. Tumor Prevention and Genetics III: Springer; 2005. p. 177- 211.

Ganesh B, Talole SD, Dikshit R. Tobacco, alcohol and tea drinking as risk factors for esophageal cancer: A case–control study from Mumbai, India. Cancer epidemiology; 2009.33(6):431-4.

Michels KB, Giovannucci E, Joshipura KJ, Rosner BA, Stampfer MJ, Fuchs CS, et al. Prospective study of fruit and vegetable consumption and incidence of colon and rectal cancers. Journal of the National Cancer Institute; 2000.92(21):1740-52.

Doyle VC. Nutrition and colorectal cancer risk: a literature review. Gastroenterology Nursing; 2007.30(3):178-82.

Steinmetz KA, Kushi LH, Bostick RM, Folsom AR, Potter JD. Vegetables, fruit, and colon cancer in the lowa women's health study. American Journal of Epidemiology; 1994.139(1):1-15

Haggar FA, Boushey RP. Colorectal cancer epidemiology: incidence, mortality, survival, and risk factors. Clinics in colon and rectal surgery; 2009.22(4):191.

Moghaddam AA, Woodward M, Huxley R. Obesity and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of 31 studies with 70,000 events. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2007;16(12):2533-47.

ZismanAL ,Nickolov A, Brand RE, Gorchow A, Roy HK. Associations between the age at diagnosis and location of colorectal cancer and the use of alcohol and tobacco: implications for screening. Archives of internal medicine; 2006;166(6):629-34.

Klatsky AL, Armstrong MA, Friedman GD, Hiatt RA. The relations of alcoholic beverage use to colon and rectal cancer. American journal of epidemiology; 1988;128(5):1007-15.

Sandler RS, Halabi S, Baron JA, Budinger S, Paskett E, Keresztes R, et al. A randomized trial of aspirin to prevent colorectal adenomas in patients with previous colorectal cancer. New England Journal of Medicine; 2003;348(10):883-90.

Lee YC, Hsu CY, Chen SL, Yen AM, Chiu SY, Fann JC, Chuang SL, Hsu WF, Chiang TH, Chiu HM, Wu MS. Effects of screening and universal healthcare on long-term colorectal cancer mortality. International journal of epidemiology. 2019;48(2):538-48.

Roy HK, Bianchi LK. Differences in colon adenomas and carcinomas among women and men: potential clinical implications. Jama; 2009; 302(15):1696-7.

Murphy G, Devesa SS, Cross AJ, Inskip PD, McGlynn KA, Cook MB. Sex disparities in colorectal cancer incidence by anatomic subsite, race and age. International Journal of Cancer; 2011;128(7):1668- 75.

Wong RJ. Marked variations in proximal colon cancer survival by race/ethnicity within the United States. Journal of clinical gastroenterology; 2010; 44(9):625-30.

Ma J, Giovannucci E, Pollak M, Leavitt A, Tao Y, Gaziano JM, et al. A prospective study of plasma C-peptide and colorectal cancer risk in men. Journal of the National Cancer Institute; 2004; 96(7):546-53.

Flood A, Strayer L, Schairer C, Schatzkin A. Diabetes and risk of incident colorectal cancer in a prospective cohort of women. Cancer Causes & Control; 2010; 21(8):1277-84.

Vinikoor LC, Long MD, Keku TO, Martin CF, Galanko JA, Sandler RS. The association between diabetes, insulin use, and colorectal cancer among Whites and African Americans. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2009;18(4):1239-42.

Fitzpatrick-Lewis D, Ali MU, Warren R, Kenny M, Sherifali D, Raina P. Screening for colorectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical colorectal cancer. 2016;15(4):298-313.

Whitlock EP, Lin J, Liles E, Beil T, Fu R, O'Connor E, Thompson RN, Cardenas T. Screening for colorectal cancer: an updated systematic review.Garborg K, Holme Ø, Løberg M, Kalager M, Adami HO, Bretthauer M. Current status of screening for colorectal cancer. Annals of oncology. 2013;24(8):1963-72.

Lea D, Håland S, Hagland HR, Søreide K. Accuracy of TNM staging in colorectal cancer: a review of current culprits, the modern role of morphology and stepping-stones for improvements in the molecular era. Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology. 2014; 49(10):1153-63.

Resch A, Langner C. Lymph node staging in colorectal cancer: old controversies and recent advances. World journal of gastroenterology: WJG. 2013;19(46):8515.

Macrae FA, Bendell J, Tanabe KK, Savarese D, Grover S. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, and staging of colorectal cancer. Up To Date.[Google Scholar]. 2017.

Nagtegaal ID, Quirke P, Schmoll HJ. Has the new TNM classification for colorectal cancer improved care?. Nature reviews Clinical oncology. 2012;9(2):119.

Moreno CC, Mittal PK, Sullivan PS, Rutherford R, Staley CA, Cardona K, Hawk NN, Dixon WT, Kitajima HD, Kang J, Small WC. Colorectal cancer initial diagnosis: screening colonoscopy, diagnostic colonoscopy, or emergent surgery, and tumor stage and size at initial presentation. Clinical colorectal cancer. 2016;15(1):67-73.

Hall C, Clarke L, Pal A, Buchwald P, Eglinton T, Wakeman C, Frizelle F. A review of the role of carcinoembryonic antigen in clinical practice. Annals of coloproctology. 2019;35(6):294.

Mao Y, Chen B, Wang H, Zhang Y, Yi X, Liao W, Zhao L. Diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging for colorectal liver metastasis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Scientific reports. 2020;10(1):1-2.

Golfinopoulos V, Pentheroudakis G, Pavlidis N. Treatment of colorectal cancer in the elderly: a review of the literature. Cancer treatment reviews. 2006;32(1):1-8.

Simmonds PD, Best L, George S, Baughan C, Buchanan R, Davis C, Fentiman I, Gosney M, Northover J, Williams CJ, Group CC. Surgery for colorectal cancer in elderly patients: a systematic review. The Lancet. 2000;356(9234):968-74.

Reza MM, Blasco JA, Andradas E, Cantero R, Mayol J. Systematic review of laparoscopic versus open surgery for colorectal cancer. British journal of surgery. 2006;93(8):921-8.

Vonk-Klaassen SM, de Vocht HM, den Ouden ME, Eddes EH, Schuurmans MJ. Ostomy-related problems and their impact on quality of life of colorectal cancer ostomates: a systematic review. Quality of life research. 2016;25(1):125-33.

Minami Y, Kudo M. Radiofrequency ablation of liver metastases from colorectal cancer: a literature review. Gut and liver. 2013;7(1):1.

Zhao JK, Chen NZ, Zheng JB, He S, Sun XJ. Laparoscopic versus open surgery for rectal cancer: Results of a systematic review and meta‑analysis on clinical efficacy. Molecular and clinical oncology. 2014;2(6):1097-102.

Ciardiello D, Vitiello PP, Cardone C, Martini G, Troiani T, Martinelli E, Ciardiello F. Immunotherapy of colorectal cancer: Challenges for therapeutic efficacy. Cancer treatment reviews. 2019;76:22-32.

Basini J, Rayadurgam S, Dakshinamurthy S. An overview of colorectal cancer: implication of two medicinal plants in their treatment. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2019;12(7):47-52.

Aithal RR, Shetty RS, S BV, Mallya SD, Shenoy K R, Nair S. Colorectal cancer and its risk factors among patients attending a tertiary care hospital in southern karnataka, india. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2017;10(4):109-12.

Mak G, Moschetta M, Arkenau HT. Immunotherapy in Colorectal Cancer. Colorectal Cancer: From Pathogenesis to Treatment. 2016:301.

Gustavsson B, Carlsson G, Machover D, Petrelli N, Roth A, Schmoll HJ, Tveit KM, Gibson F. A review of the evolution of systemic chemotherapy in the management of colorectal cancer. Clinical colorectal cancer. 2015;14(1):1-0.

Jalil O, Claydon L, Arulampalam T. Review of neoadjuvant chemotherapy alone in locally advanced rectal cancer. Journal of gastrointestinal cancer. 2015;46(3):219-36.

Poulsen LØ, Qvortrup C, Pfeiffer P, Yilmaz M, Falkmer U, Sorbye H. Review on adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer–why do treatment guidelines differ so much? ActaOncologica. 2015;54(4):437-46.

Tam SY, Wu VW. A review on the special radiotherapy techniques of colorectal cancer. Frontiers in oncology. 2019; 9:208.

Xie YH, Chen YX, Fang JY. Comprehensive review of targeted therapy for colorectal cancer. Signal transduction and targeted therapy. 2020; 5(1):1-30.

Published

02-11-2021

How to Cite

ALARYANI, F. S., & TURKI ALRDAHE, S. S. (2021). A REVIEW OF TREATMENT, RISK FACTORS, AND INCIDENCE OF COLORECTAL CANCER. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 14(1). https://doi.org/10.22159/ijap.2022v14i1.42820

Issue

Section

Review Article(s)