• FATIMA S. ALARYANI Biology Department, Faculty of Sciences, Jeddah University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • SALMA SALEH TURKI ALRDAHE Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Tabuk, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia




colorectal cancer, mortality, surgery, chemotherapy, incidence, screening


Colorectal cancer (CRC) is considered as the third most frequent cancer in the world and the incidence increases with increasing age. CRC accounts nearly 9 % of all cancer incidence, with an estimated 1.4 million cases happening in 2012. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of incidence, risk factors, screening strategies, and treatment of colorectal cancer. We searched the studies in five English databases, including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, and Google Scholar with no limitation in publication time to find all papers regarding the colorectal cancers. Papers with any language were included in the first step of search if they had an English abstract. We used the following words and terms including: colorectal cancer, treatment, risk factor, diagnosis, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery. Geographical variations and different time courses in the CRC incidence indicate that environmental factors and lifestyle are major factors in the development of this disease. The main preventable risk factors for CRC are nutrition, high-fat diet, low-fiber diet, obesity and physical inactivity, smoking and alcohol consumption, aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and some non-preventable risk factors such as age, gender, race, and diabetes mellitus. Colonoscopy remains the study of choice to diagnose colorectal cancer. Prior to any treatment, CT imaging of chest, abdomen and pelvis with contrast is needed for staging patient’s CRC. The preferred option for localized colorectal cancer is surgery (etc, laparoscopic surgery, colostomy for rectal cancer); whereas the adjuvant chemotherapy is generally recommended for patients with lymph node metastases.  Targeted treatment of colorectal cancer by monoclonal antibodies are important bioengineered proteins that can help the body's natural immune response to detect, attack, and kill cancer cells. Monoclonal antibodies may be used alone or in combination with other treatments such as chemotherapy. CRC accounts an important health problem worldwide that is estimated to increase because of the growth and aging of the population, and because of the adoption of at-risk manners and lifestyle, particularly in economically less developed countries. Screening has been confirmed to significantly decrease mortality and can prevent the onset of the disease. More international efforts are required to situate into practice targeted prevention approaches that might reduce the burden of CRC worldwide.


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How to Cite

ALARYANI, F. S., & TURKI ALRDAHE, S. S. (2021). A REVIEW OF TREATMENT, RISK FACTORS, AND INCIDENCE OF COLORECTAL CANCER. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 14(1). https://doi.org/10.22159/ijap.2022v14i1.42820



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