FORMULATION OF CINNAMON BARK ESSENTIAL OIL GEL AS MOSQUITO REPELLENT

Authors

  • DHADHANG WAHYU KURNIAWAN Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Jl. dr. Suparno Kampus Unsoed Karangwangkal Purwokerto, Central Java, 53123, Indonesia
  • VIDYA NUR AGUSTINA Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Jl. dr. Suparno Kampus Unsoed Karangwangkal Purwokerto, Central Java, 53123, Indonesia
  • SUNARTO Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Jl. dr. Suparno Kampus Unsoed Karangwangkal Purwokerto, Central Java, 53123, Indonesia
  • GUNAWAN ADI WIBOWO Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Jl. dr. Suparno Kampus Unsoed Karangwangkal Purwokerto, Central Java, 53123, Indonesia
  • MUHAMMAD ZAENURI SYAMSU HIDAYAT Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Jl. Dr. Gumbreg No 1 Mersi Purwokerto, Central Java, Indonesia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.22159/ijap.2022v14i1.43034

Keywords:

Cinnamon (C. burmanii) bark, Essential oil, Gel formulation, Repellent, DEET

Abstract

Objective: The purpose of this research is to prepare a cinnamon bark essential oil gel preparation, determines the physical characteristic and physical stability during storage, and examines the activity of mosquito repellent from the best gel preparation.

Methods: The formulations of gel were made with variations in the concentration of Carbopol 940 (0.5%, 1.5%, and 2%) contain 1% of cinnamon bark essential oil. The gel evaluated physical characteristics and physical stability. The parameters of organoleptic, homogeneity, and pH are analyzed descriptive, while the viscosity, the spreadability, and the gel adhesion were analyzed using one-way ANOVA at the level of confidence of 95%. The best gel tested its effectiveness as compared to the negative control and product innovator (which used DEET as an active compound) as a positive control. The activity of repellent was determined by an Aedes aegypti mosquito for 6 h with 2 hands respondents. The effectiveness of repellent protection is calculated by the percentage of protection power.

Results: The studies showed that all the gel preparations qualified the organoleptic, homogeneity, and pH parameters. The viscosity, gel adhesion, and spreadability are also stable during storage.

Conclusion: Based on the results, the best gel is the formula I which has mosquito repellent activity effective for 6 h like DEET.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Von Rintelen K, Arida E, Hauser C, von Rintelen K, Arida E, Hauser C, von Rintelen K, Arida E, Hauser C, von Rintelen K, Arida E, Hauser C. A review of biodiversity-related issues and challenges in megadiverse Indonesia and other Southeast Asian countries. Res Ideas Outcomes. 2017;3:e20807. doi: 10.3897/rio.3.e20860.

Wijayanti SPM, Sunaryo S, Suprihatin S, McFarlane M, Rainey SM, Dietrich I, Schnettler E, Biek R, Kohl A. Dengue in Java, Indonesia: relevance of mosquito indices as risk predictors. PLOS Negl Trop Dis. 2016;10(3):e0004500. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004500, PMID 26967524.

Norris EJ, Coats JR. Current and future repellent technologies: the potential of spatial repellents and their place in mosquito-borne disease control. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017;14(2). doi: 10.3390/ijerph14020124, PMID 28146066.

Grant GG, Estrera RR, Pathak N, Hall CD, Tsikolia M, Linthicum KJ, Bernier UR, Hall AC. Interactions of DEET and novel repellents with mosquito odorant receptors. J Med Entomol. 2020;57(4):1032-40. doi: 10.1093/jme/tjaa010, PMID 32048720.

Paluch G, Bartholomay L, Coats J. Mosquito repellents: a review of chemical structure diversity and olfaction. Pest Manag Sci. 2010;66(9):925-35. doi: 10.1002/ps.1974, PMID 20623705.

Koren G, Matsui D, Bailey B. DEET-based insect repellents: safety implications for children and pregnant and lactating women. CMAJ. 2003;169(3):209-12. PMID 12900480.

Kasim NN, Ismail NASS, Masdar ND, Hamid FA, Nawawi WI. Extraction and potential of cinnamon essential oil towards repellency and insecticidal activity. Int J Sci Res Publ. 2014;4(7):2250-3153.

Balijepalli MK, Buru AS, Sakirolla R, Pichika MR. Cinnamomum genus: a review on its biological activities. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2017;9(2):1-11.

Mdoe FP, Cheng SS, Msangi S, Nkwengulila G, Chang ST, Kweka EJ. Activity of Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaf essential oil against anopheles gambiae s. s. Parasit Vectors. 2014;7(1):209. doi: 10.1186/1756-3305-7-209, PMID 24885613.

Fouad HA. Bioactivity of essential oils of medicinal plants against Bruchidius incarnatus (Bohemann, 1833). Agric Environ Manag. 2013;2(6):135-41.

Pohlit AM, Lopes NP, Gama RA, Tadei WP, Neto VF. Patent literature on mosquito repellent inventions which contain plant essential oils-a review. Planta Med. 2011;77(6):598-617. doi: 10.1055/s-0030-1270723, PMID 21328177.

Kaur M, Nagpal M, Singh M, Singh TG, Aggarwal G, Dhingra GA. Improved antibacterial activity of topical gel-based on nanosponge carrier of cinnamon oil. BioImpacts. 2021;11(1):23-31. doi: 10.34172/bi.2021.04, PMID 33469505.

Verma A, Singh S, Kaur R, Jain UK. Topical gels as drug delivery systems: a review. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res. 2013;23(2):374-82.

Dantas MG, Reis SA, Damasceno CM, Rolim LA, Rolim-Neto PJ, Carvalho FO, Quintans-Junior LJ, Almeida JR. Development and evaluation of stability of a gel formulation containing the monoterpene borneol. Scientific World Journal. 2016;2016:7394685. doi: 10.1155/2016/7394685. PMID 27247965.

Bairagi GR, Patel VP. Formulation and development of curcumin based emulgel in treatment and recurrence of vaginal candidiasis. Int J Curr Pharm Sci. 2021;13(5):89-99. doi: 10.22159/ijcpr.2021v13i5.1900.

Who. Guidelines for efficacy testing of mosquito repellents for human skin. Who/HTM/Ntd/Whopes/20094; 2009. p. 1-6.

Minyak Kulit SNI, Manis K; 2006.

Chemicals SP. Cosmet Formul; 2017. p. 1-31.

Ali SM, Yosipovitch G. Skin pH: from basic science to basic skincare. Acta Derm Venereol. 2013;93(3):261-7. doi: 10.2340/00015555-1531, PMID 23322028.

Chaerunisaa AY, Mita SR, Rahmat DD. Formulation and stability evaluation of atenolol gel in two different bases. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2019;12(3):383-6. doi: 10.22159/ajpcr.2019.v12i3.30727.

Gu X, Sang H, Pu C, Zhang L, Zhao Q. Effect of pH on gelling performance and stability of HPAM/Cr3+weak gel. Ifeesm; 2015. p. 401-4.

Maxey J. AADE-11-NTCE-23 viscosity and gel structure: the unseen results of their manipulation; 2011.

Abdul Rahman MN, Qader OAJA, Sukmasari S, Ismail AF, Doolaanea AA. Rheological characterization of different gelling polymers for dental gel formulation. J Pharm Sci Res. 2017;9(12):2633-40.

Shukr MH, Metwally GF. Evaluation of topical gel bases formulated with various essential oils for antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus. Trop J Pharm Res. 2013;12(6):877-84. doi: 10.4314/tjpr.v12i6.3.

Ruela ALM, Perissinato AG, Lino MEdS, Mudrik PS, Pereira GR. Evaluation of skin absorption of drugs from topical and transdermal formulations. Braz J Pharm Sci. 2016;52(3):527-44. doi: 10.1590/s1984-82502016000300018.

B SA, Jeganath S, Jeevitha E. Pharmaceutical gels and recent trends– A review. Res J Pharm Technol. 2019;12(12):6181-6. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.01073.4.

Gagliardo A, Pollonara E, Vanni L, Giunchi D. An experimental study on the effectiveness of a gel repellent on feral pigeons. Eur J Wildl Res. 2020;66(2). doi: 10.1007/s10344-020-1365-4.

Payal Mittal, Manish Goswami, Monika Airi. Mosquito repellent action of Duranta plumieri (Verbenaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2019;12(6):317-20. doi: 10.22159/ajpcr.2019.v12i6.32981.

UA, GT, PT, SA. Pupal emergence inhibition activity of acalypha indica leaf extract against dengue vector, aedes albopictus mosquito. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2017;9(8):114. doi: 10.22159/ijpps.2017v9i8.19362.

Published

07-01-2022

How to Cite

KURNIAWAN, D. W., AGUSTINA, V. N., SUNARTO, WIBOWO, G. A., & SYAMSU HIDAYAT, M. Z. (2022). FORMULATION OF CINNAMON BARK ESSENTIAL OIL GEL AS MOSQUITO REPELLENT. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 14(1), 208–212. https://doi.org/10.22159/ijap.2022v14i1.43034

Issue

Section

Original Article(s)

Most read articles by the same author(s)