• RASHAD M. KAOUD Pharmacy Department, Ashur University College, PO Box 10047, Baghdad, Iraq https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8537-7066
  • EMAN J. HEIKAL Faculty of Pharmacy, the University of Mashreq, Baghdad, Iraq
  • TAHA M. HAMMADY Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt




Diacerein, Niosome, Cholesterol, Tween, Stearylamine and Stability


Objective: The study's main goal is to develop a suitable niosomes (NS) encapsulated drug for anti-inflammatory effects such as diacerein (DC) and to evaluate the system's vesicle size (VS), entrapment efficiency (EE %), physical stability and in vitro release.

Methods: Tween (40 and 60), cholesterol, and stearylamine were used in a 1:1:0.1 molar ratios as non-ionic surfactants. Thin film hydration was used to create the NS.

Results: The higher EE% was observed with NS (F11) prepared from tween 60, cholesterol and 2.5 min sonication. These formulations' release patterns were Higuchi diffusion and first order. For the stability study, NS formulations were stored at temperature between 2-8 °C for 60 d retains the most drugs when compared to room and high temperature conditions.

Conclusion: The findings of this study have conclusively shown that after NS encapsulation of DC, drug release is prolonged at a constant and controlled rate.


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How to Cite

KAOUD, R. M., HEIKAL, E. J., & HAMMADY, T. M. (2022). DIACEREIN-LOADED NIOSOMES (DC-NS): A NEW TECHNIQUE TO SUSTAIN THE RELEASE OF DRUG ACTION. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 14(1), 156–163. https://doi.org/10.22159/ijap.2022v14i1.43353



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