• S. NAVEENTAJ Department of Pharmaceutics, Sri Padmavati Mahila Visvavidyalayam, [Women’s University], Tirupati 517502, Andhra Pradesh [A.P.], India
  • Y. INDIRA MUZIB Department of Pharmaceutics, Sri Padmavati Mahila Visvavidyalayam, [Women’s University], Tirupati 517502, Andhra Pradesh [A.P.], India
  • R. RADHA Department of Pharmaceutics, Sri Padmavati Mahila Visvavidyalayam, [Women’s University], Tirupati 517502, Andhra Pradesh [A.P.], India



Keywords:   Simvastatin, carrier system, transdermal permeation, patches, drug delivery systems, bioavailability.


Objective: The objective of the selected study was to design and formulate simvastatin loaded pharmacosomes and then incorporated into transdermal patch by solvent evaporation technique to enhance the solubility, bioavailability, and half-life of simvastatin.

Methods: Simvastatin comes under the BCS-II class, which has low solubility and high permeability. Simvastain loaded pharmacosomes of six different formulations  was prepared by taking simvastatin and soya lecithin in varying ratios and dissolved in a high polarity solvent dichloromethane and then subjected to solvent evaporation method.

Results: Formulated simvastatin loaded pharmacosomes (SLP) were subjected to evaluation, out of six formulation, optimised formulation (F3) shown in-vitro drug release of 86.88%; particle size of 151.6 nm with zeta potential of -16.5mV, which indicates good stability.SEM studies confirmed their smooth porous structure with a number of nano-channels. The FT-IR spectra and DSC showed a stable character of simvastatin in a mixture of lipid and solvent shows compatible and revealed the absence of drug polymer interactions. The SLP was loaded into transdermal patch by solvent evaporation method and evaluated for physical characteristics and results found to be patch surface pH 6.15±0.08, thickness 0.146±0.0096mm, weight uniformity 1.12 ±1.73, % swell-ability 13.50±0.028 for best patch formulation (F3).

Conclusion: This research paper give an outline on significance of simvastatin loaded Pharmacosomes as transdermal patch for enhancing trans-permeation through skin and its characterization and results. Through obtained results it is concluded that pharmacosomes is a promising carrier to enhance permeation of the selected drug through skin.


Download data is not yet available.


D. Kavitha, J. Naga Sowjanya, and S. Panaganti. Pharmacosomes: an emerging vesicular system. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research. 2010; vol.5, no.3, pp. 168-171.

J.L.Patel and P. D. Bharadia. A review on: Pharamacosomes as a novel vesicular drug delivery system. WJPR. 2012; vol.1,pp. 456 - 469.

S. B. More, T. D. Nandgude, and S. S. Poddar. Vesicles as a tool for enhanced topical drug delivery. Asian J. Pharm.2016; vol. 10, no. 3, pp. S196-S209.

S.Sharma, L. Mishra, I. Grover, A. Gupta, and K. Kaur. Liposomes: vesicular system an overview. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences.2010; vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 15-21.

A. Deepti, R. Madhukar, R. Jukanti, B. Suresh, P. Reddy, and V. Reddy. Provesicular drug delivery systems: an overview and appraisal. Scholars Research Library.2010; vol. 2, pp. 135-146.

R.K. Kesarvani, A. K. Sharma, M. D. Ayaz. Review novel drug delivery system for the vesicular delivery of drug by the niosomes. International Journal of Research in Controlled Release.2011; vol. 1, pp. 1-8.

S.Gupta, R. P. Singh, P. Lokwani, S. Yadav, and S. K. Gupta. Vesicular system as targeted drug delivery system: an overview. International Journal of Pharmacy and Technology.2011; vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 987-1021.

Li Y, Yang DJ, Chen SL, Chen SB, Chan AS. Comparative physicochemical characterization of phospholipids complex of puerarin formulated by conventional and supercritical methods. Pharm Res. 2007; 25:563-77.

Singh D, Rawat MSM, Semalty A, Semalty M. Gallic acid-phospholipid complex: drug incorporation and physicochemical characterization. Letters in Drug Design Disc.2011; 8(1)-16.

Bhatt DA, Pethe AM. Lipoidal technology-a promising drug delivery for poorly water solubledrugs.IntJPharmResDev.2010; 2(7):1-11.

Touitou E, Dayan M, Bergelson L, Godin B and Eliaz M. Ethosomes -Novel Vesicular carriers for enhanced delivery: Characterization and skin penetration properties. J Con Releas.2000; 65:403-413.

Yuefeng Rao, Feiyue Zheng, Xingguo Zhang, Jianqing Gao, and Wenquan Liang. Invitro Percutaneous Permeation and Skin Accumulation of finasteride using vesicular Ethosomal Carriers. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2008; Vol. 9, No. 3.

Mamatha, T., J.V. Rao, K. Mukkanti and G. Ramesh. Development of matrix type transdermal patches of lercanidipine hydrochloride: Physicochemical and in-vitro characterization. DARU.2010; 18: 9-16.

Padula, C., S. Nicoli, V. Aversa, P. Colombo, F. Falson, F. Pirot and P. Santi. Bioadhesive film for dermal and transdermal drug delivery. Eur. J. Dermatol.2007; 17: 309-312.

Prabhakar D, Sreekanth J, Jayaveera KN. Transdermal drug delivery patches: a review. J DrugDelivTher.2013; 3(4):213-21.

Alkilani AZ, McCrudden MT, Donnelly RF. Transdermal Drug Delivery: Innovative Pharmaceutical Developments Based on Disruption of the Barrier Properties of the stratum corneum. Pharmaceutics.2015; 7(4):438-470.

Pavan Kumar, P.R.Radhika, T.Sivakumar. Ethosomes-A Priority in Transdermal Drug Delivery. International Journal of Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences.2010;111-121.

Duane WC, Hunninghake DB, Freeman MLet al. Simvastatin, a competitive inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase, lowers cholesterol saturation index of gallbladder bile. Hepatology. 1988; 8:1147-1150.

Sharma S, Aggarwal G, Dhawan S. Design and evaluation of olanzapine transdermal patches containing vegetable oils as permeation enhancers. Scholars Research Library. 2010; 2(6):84-98.

SHIVALINGAM, M. R., BALASUBRAMANIAN, A., & RAMALINGAM, K. Formulation and evaluation of transdermal Patches of Pantoprozole Sodium. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics.2021; 13(5), 287–291.

Das PS, Saha P. Design and characterisation of transdermal patches of Phenformin hydrochloride. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2017; 9: 90-3.

Andrade LM, de Fatima Reis C. Impact of lipid dynamic behaviour on physical stability, in-vitro release and skin permeation of genistein-loaded lipid nanoparticles. Eur J Pharm Biopharm.2014; 88:40-47.

Fu Y, Kao WJ. Drug release kinetics and transport mechanisms of non-degradable and degradable polymeric delivery systems. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2010; 7(4):429-444.

Artifin DY, Lee LY, Wang CH. Mathematical modeling and simulation of drug release from microspheres: implication to drug delivery systems. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2006; 58:1274–1325.

Grassi M, Grassi G. Mathematical modeling and controlled drug delivery: matrix systems. Curr Drug Deliv. 2005;2:97-116.

Siepmann J, Siepmann F. Mathematical modeling of drug delivery. Int J Pharm. 2008; 364: 328-343.

Arora P, Mukherjee B. Design, development, physicochemical, and invitro and invivo evaluation of transdermal patches containing diclofenac diethylammonium salt. J Pharm Sci. 2002; 91:2076-89.

Das, P. S., and P. Saha. Design and characterization of transdermal patches of phenformin hydrochloride. International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research.2017; vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 90-93. doi:10.22159/ijcpr.2017v9i6.23437.

Anod, H.V., Gupta, N.V., Gowda, D.V. and M.M. Preparation and evaluation of simvastain transdermal film. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics. 2018; vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 235-8. doi:10.22159/ijap.2018v10i5.26657.

Bhaskar K, Anbu J, Ravichandiran V, Venkateswarlu V, Rao YM. Lipid nanoparticles for transdermal delivery of flurbiprofen: formulation, in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo studies. Lipids Health Dis. 2009; 8:6. doi: 10.1186/1476-511X-8-6, PMID 19243632.



How to Cite




Original Article(s)