MAGNETIC NANOPARTICLE-BASED APPROACHES IN CANCER THERAPY – A CRITICAL REVIEW
Keywords:Cancer therapy; Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs); Functionalization; Drug delivery; Hyperthermia; Combination therapy.
Cancer is definitely one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Failure in efficacy of the standard treatments (chemo-, radiotherapy and surgery), and the severe side effects, resistance of tumor cells to chemotherapeutics has necessitated alternative therapeutic strategies. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been assessed as potential cancer therapy materials. Their intrinsic magnetic properties provide a cancer detection, monitoring, and therapy platform based on multimodal theranostics. MNPs can be functionalized by binding them to a wide variety of substances, including chemotherapeutic drugs, radionuclides, nucleic acids, and antibodies. They can be used for drug delivery, magnetic or photothermal induced local hyperthermia and photodynamic therapy aimed at killing cancer cells at the tumor site. MNPs may also be useful to challenge drug resistance. The combination of different options of these treatment modalities offers a synergistic effect and significantly reduces the side effects. The functionalized MNPs may be used to remove the unwanted cells from blood, including leukemia cells and circulating tumor cells that key factors in the metastatic process. Despite numerous successful studies, there are still some unpredictable obstacles relevant to the use of MNPs in cancer therapy. This review mainly focuses on application of MNPs in cancer treatment, covering future perspectives and challenges aspects.
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