• HANIFA RAHMA Pharmacy Departement, Bandung Islamic University
  • TRI SUCIATI School of Pharmacy, Institut Tekhnologi Bandung, Ganesha Street No. 10, Bandung, 40132, Indonesia



SODIUM ASCORBYL PHOSPHATE, nanoemulsion, tween 80, PEG 400, Glycerin


Objective: Wrinkles are a natural aging consequence that are most visible on sun-exposed skin, such as the face, neck, hands, and forearms. To meet the demands of the aesthetic market, anti-wrinkle active substances have been produced. Due to its capacity to shield skin from free radicals and promote collagen activity, water-soluble vitamin C has emerged as one of the essential anti-wrinkle options. Vitamin C as an antioxidant can reduce damage caused by free radicals

Methods: The aim of this study was to develop a water-soluble vitamin C nanoemulsion, identify the optimum formulation, and do stability tests. The method is to mix the ingredients with the same phase first then mix the two and stabilize with surfactant. A standard procedure was used to produce the nanoemulsion, with the variation ratio of tween 80 to PEG 400 and glycerin. Then, the research went on to the evaluation involved a physical stability test utilizing centrifugation at 3375 rpm, six cycles of freeze-thaw and a thermal stability test at three distinct temperatures for four weeks.

Results: The results showed that the 10% glycerin increased SAP's solubility in the oil phase. A clear and transparent nanoemulsion with fine physical and thermal stability and globule sizes less than 200 nm was produced by the optimum formula, which contained Tween 80, PEG 40, glycerin, VCO, and phosphate buffer at pH 6 in a ratio of 17:9:10:3:61.

Conclusion: The formulation of Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate has good physical, chemical characteristic, and stability properties that makes it acceptable to use it as the primary or supplemental therapy for an anti-wringkle agent with good efficacy and low side effects.


Download data is not yet available.


S. Arsiwala et al., “Evaluation of topical Anti-Wrinkle and Firming (AWF) for Women, Anti-Wrinkle and Firming (AFM) for Men and deep wrinkles for wrinkles on face and neck,” Asian J. Pharm. Clin. Res., vol. 6, no. 3, 2013.

A. M. Kligman, P. Zheng, and R. M. Lavker, “The anatomy and pathogenesis of wrinkles,” Br. J. Dermatol., vol. 113, no. 1, pp. 37–42, 1985.

C. Rona, F. Vailati, and E. Berardesca, “The cosmetic treatment of wrinkles,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 26–34, 2004.

I. B. Allemann and L. Baumann, “Antioxidants used in skin care formulations,” Ski. Ther. Lett, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 5–9, 2008.

M. Udompataikul, P. Sripiroj, and P. Palungwachira, “An oral nutraceutical containing antioxidants, minerals and glycosaminoglycans improves skin roughness and fine wrinkles,” Int. J. Cosmet. Sci., vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 427–435, 2009.

D. E. Henson, G. Block, and M. Levine, “Ascorbic Acid: Biologic Functions and,” J. Natl. cancer Inst., vol. 83, no. 8, p. 547, 1991.

V. APARAJITA and P. RAVIKUMAR, “Liposomes As Carriers in Skin Ageing,” Int J Curr Pharm Res, vol. 6, no. 3, 2014.

M. Materska, “Flavone C-glycosides from Capsicum annuum L.: relationships between antioxidant activity and lipophilicity,” Eur. Food Res. Technol., vol. 240, no. 3, pp. 549–557, 2015.

S. Surini and N. M. Negoro, “Development of microemulsion and water/oil/water multiple emulsion containing beta-arbutin, lactic acid, and sodium ascorbyl phosphate,” Int. J. Appl. Pharm., vol. 12, no. Special Issue 1, 2020, doi: 10.22159/ijap.2020.v12s1.FF048.

T. Delmas et al., “How to prepare and stabilize very small nanoemulsions,” Langmuir, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 1683–1692, 2011.

A. Thakur, M. K. Walia, and S. L. Kumar, “Nanoemulsion in enhancement of bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs: a review,” Pharmacophore, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 15–25, 2013.

F. K. Nursal, Y. C. Sumirtapura, R. E. Kartasasmita, H. Rahma, and T. Suciati, “Development and Evaluation of Sodium ascorbyl phosphate Nanoemulsion for Transcutaneous Delivery,” Res. J. Pharm. Technol., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 3086–3092, 2020.

I. Y. Astuti, M. Marchaban, R. Martien, and A. E. Nugroho, “Validasi Metode Spektrofotometri UV-VIS Untuk Studi Kelarutan Pentagamavunon-0 di dalam Pembawa Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System,” Pharm. J. Farm. Indones. (Pharmaceutical J. Indones., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 127–136, 2018.

A. Hasrawati, N. Hasyim, and N. A. Irsyad, “( Cymbopogon nardus ) MENGGUNAKAN EMULGATOR SURFAKTAN NONIONIK,” J. Fitofarmaka Indones., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 151–154, 2016.

M. M. Ghareeb and A. J. Neamah, “Formulation and characterization of nimodipine nanoemulsion as ampoule for oral route,” Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Res., vol. 8, no. 2, p. 591, 2017.

J. Ahmad, S. Amin, K. Kohli, and S. R. Mir, “Construction of pseudoternary phase diagram and its evaluation: Development of self-dispersible oral formulation,” Int. J. Drug Dev. Res., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 84–90, 2013.

K. Kaur, R. Kumar, and S. K. Mehta, “Formulation of saponin stabilized nanoemulsion by ultrasonic method and its role to protect the degradation of quercitin from UV light,” Ultrason. Sonochem., vol. 31, pp. 29–38, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2015.11.017.

P. Špiclin, M. Homar, A. Zupančič-Valant, and M. Gašperlin, “Sodium ascorbyl phosphate in topical microemulsions,” Int. J. Pharm., vol. 256, no. 1–2, pp. 65–73, 2003.

R. Tungadi and U. N. Gorontalo, “CHARACTERIZATION AND PHYSICAL STABILITY EVALUATION OF SNAKEHEAD FISH ( OPHIOCEPHALUS STRIATUS ) POWDER NANOEMULSION Department of Pharmacy , Faculty of Sport and Health , State University of Gorontalo , Gorontalo , INTRODUCTION : In Indonesia , one of fre,” Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Res., vol. 8, no. June, pp. 2720–2724, 2017, doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.8(6).2720-24.

N. Harimurti, M. Nasikin, and K. Mulia, “Water-in-Oil-in-Water Nanoemulsions Containing Temulawak (Curcuma xanthorriza Roxb) and Red Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Extracts,” Molecules, vol. 26, no. 1, 2021, doi: 10.3390/MOLECULES26010196.

F. V. S. Rodrigues et al., “Preparation and characterization of nanoemulsion containing a natural naphthoquinone,” Quim. Nova, vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 756–761, 2018, doi: 10.21577/0100-4042.20170247.

E. M. Kenneth, S. N. Xavier, M. C. John, O. O. Patience, and R. Krause, “Evaluation of Accelerated Stability Testing of a Mirtazapine-loaded Nanoemulsion as per International Conference on Harmonization (ich) Protocols American Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research,” Am. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. Res., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 8–17, 2018, [Online]. Available:

P. K. Farris, “Cosmeceutical vitamins: vitamin C,” Cosmeceuticals, 3rd ed. Draelos ZD, Ed., pp. 37–42, 2014.

A. Mandal, A. Bera, K. Ojha, and T. Kumar, “Characterization of surfactant stabilized nanoemulsion and its use in enhanced oil recovery,” in SPE International Oilfield Nanotechnology Conference and Exhibition, 2012.

Y.-J. Li et al., “Nanoemulsion-based delivery system for enhanced oral bioavailability and caco-2 cell monolayers permeability of berberine hydrochloride,” Drug Deliv., vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 1868–1873, 2017.

S. Shafiq-un-Nabi et al., “Formulation development and optimization using nanoemulsion technique: a technical note,” AAPS pharmscitech, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. E12–E17, 2007.

N. P. J. Stamford, “Stability, transdermal penetration, and cutaneous effects of ascorbic acid and its derivatives,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol., vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 310–317, 2012.



How to Cite

RAHMA, H., & SUCIATI, T. (2023). FORMULATION OF SODIUM ASCORBYL PHOSPHATE (SAP) INTO O/W NANOEMULSION. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 15(3).



Original Article(s)