FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CRYPTOLEPIS SANGUINOLENTA ROOT TABLETS
Objectives: To study were to formulate the ethanolic extract of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta root into tablets and to evaluate the effect of different binders and binder concentration on the properties of tablets. Materials and method: The phytochemistry of ethanolic extract of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta was evaluated. The tablets were formulated by wet granulation using gelatin and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC) as binders at concentrations of 2 %, 4 %, 6 % and 8 %w/w. The tablets were evaluated using the necessary official and unofficial tests. Results: Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, steroids, proteins, carbohydrate, resins, reducing sugars and glycosides. Tannins, saponins, flavonoids and acidic compounds were absent. Â The tablets passed the uniformity of weight test and deviations obtained complied with BP specifications. Tablets disintegration time ranged from 8.00 Â± 0.10 to 13.50 Â± 0.21 min for tablets formulated with 2 and 4 % gelatin and 10.00 Â± 0.17 to 31.00 Â± 0.27 min for tablets formulated with 2 and 8 % SCMC. C. sanguinolenta tablets formulated gelatin significantly showed higher hardness values than SCMC (p < 0.05). Tablets showed friability of approximately â‰¤ 1 %. Conclusion: Therefore, gelatin showed good properties for formulating Cryptolepis sanguinolenta normal release tablets than SCMC.
2. Iwu M. Handbook of African medicinal plants. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1993.
3. Bierer DE, Dubenko LG, Zhang P, Lu Q, Imbach PA, Garofalo AW, Phuan PW, Fort DM, Litvak J, Gerber RE et al. Antihyperglycemic activities of cryptolepine analogues: An ethnobotanical lead structure isolated from Cryptolepis sanguinolenta. J Med Chem 1998; 41:2754-64.
4. Bierer DE, Fort DM, Mendez CD, Luo J, Imbach PA, Dubenko LG, Dubenko LG, Jolad SD, Gerber RE, Litvak J, Lu Q et al. Ethnobotanical-directed discovery of the antihyperglycemic properties of cryptolepine: Its isolation from Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, synthesis, and in vitro and in vivo activities. J Med Chem 1998; 41:894-901.
5. Luo J, Fort DM, Carlson TJ, Noamesi BK, nii-Amon-Kotei D, King SR, Tsai J, Quan J, Hobensack C, Lapresca P et al. Cryptolepis sanguinolenta: An ethnobotanical approach to drug discovery and the isolation of a potentially useful new antihyperglycaemic agent. Diabet Med 1998; 15:367-74.
6. Bugyei KA , Boye GL and Addy Â¬ME. Clinical efficacy of a tea-bag formulation of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta root in the treatment of acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Ghana Medical Journal 2010, 44 (1):3-10.
7. Cimanga K, De Bruyne T, Pieters L, Vlietinck AJ, Turger C.A. In vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activity of cryptolepine and related alkaloids from Cryptolepis sanguinolenta. J Nat Prod 1997; 60:688-691.
8. Grellier P, Ramiaramanana L, Milleriox V, Deharo E, Shrevel J, Frappier F. Antimalarial activity of cryptolepine and isocryptolepine, alkaloids isolated from Cryptolepis sanguinolenta. Phytother Res 1996;10:317- 321.
9. Boakye-Yiadom K. Antimicrobial properties of some West African medicinal plants II. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous extracts of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta (Lindl.) Schlechter. Quart J Crude Drug Res 1979; 17:78-80.
10. Paulo A, Duarte A, Gomes ET. In vitro antibacterial screening of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta alkaloids. J Ethnopharmacol 1994; 44:127-130.
11. Ajali U, Okoye FBC. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of Olax viridis root bark extracts and fractions. Int J Applied Res Nat Prod 2009; 2(1) 27-32.
12. Dahanuka SA, Kulkarni RA, Rege NN. Pharmacology of medicinal plants and natural products. Indian J Pharmacol 2002; 32: 508-512.
13. Iwu MW, Duncan AR, Okunji CO. New antimalarials of plant origin. In: Janick J, editor. Perspective on new crops and new uses. Alexandria: VA ASHS Press.1999; 457 â€“ 462.
14. Rodders J, Speedie M, Tyler V. Pharmacognosy and harmacobiotecknology. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.1996; 1-4.
15. Mali RG, Mahale, NB. Evaluation of Rhynchosia minima (Linn.) DC leaves for anthelmintic activity, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Nanotechnology 2008; 1(2), 191-194.
16. Patwardhan B. Ethnopharmacology and drug development. J Ethnopharmacol 2005; 100:50-52.
17. YÃ¼ksel N, TÃ¼rkmen B, KurdoÄŸlu AH, BaÅŸaran B, Erkin J, Baykara T. Lubricant efficiency of magnesium stearate in direct compressible powder mixtures comprising cellactoseÂ® 80 and pyridoxine hydrochloride. FABAD J Pharm Sci 2007; 32: 173-183.
18. Okoye EI, Onyekweli AO, Olobayo OK and Arhewoh MI (2010). Brittle fracture index (BFI) as a tool in the classification, grouping and ranking of some binders used in tablet formulation: Lactose tablets. Sci Res Ess 5 (5): 500-506.
19. Harborne JB. Phytochemistry. Academic Press, London, pp. 89-131.
20. Trease GE and Evans WC. Pharmacology. 15th Edn Saunders Publishers, London 2002, pp 42-44, 221-306, 331-393.
21. British Pharmacopoaeia. The Commision Office London. 2009; Vol. 111: 6578- 6585.
22. Ikewuchi CC and Ikewuchi JC. Chemical profile of Pleurotus tuberregium (Fr) Singâ€™s Sclerotia. The Pacific J Sci Tech 2008; 10(1):28-30.
23. Edeoga HO, Okwu DE, Mbaebie BO. Phytochemical Constiuents of some Nigerian medicinal plants. Afri J Biotechnol 2005; 4 (7):685-688.
24. Ofoefule SI. A text book of pharmaceutical technology and industrial pharmacy. Samakin (Nig.) Enterprises, 2002; 26 â€“ 65.