A THERAPEUTIC JOURNEY OF MIXED LIGAND COMPLEXES CONTAINING 1,10-PHENANTROLINE DERIVATIVES: A REVIEW
Schiff bases have been exposed to reveal a wide range of biological activities, including antifungal, antibacterial, antimalarial, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antipyretic properties. Mixed ligand complexes can be a synthetic challenge to tune the properties of the transition metal complexes. The review of this paper covers updated information on the most active mixed ligand metal complexes of 1,10-phenantroline derivatives that have been reported to prove considerable pharmacological actions such as, antifungal, antibacterial, antitumor, antimalarial, antiviral and other biological activities. In the present study, we summarized the biological aspects, chemistry and applications of some important mixed ligand complexes. This review is balancing to earlier reviews and aims to review the work reported on various biological activities of mixed ligand complexes bearing 1,10-phenantroline derivatives from year 2000 to the beginning of 2016.
2. Thompson KH, Orvig C. Metal complexes in medicinal chemistry: new vistas and challenges in drug design. Dalton Trans 2006;6:761-4.
3. Mewis RE, Archibald SJ. Biomedical applications of macrocyclic ligand complexes. Coord Chem Rev 2010;254:1686â€“712.
4. Lee JD. Concise Inorganic chemistry. 4th ed. Champman and Hall: London; 1991. p. 607.
5. Hegg EL, Burstyn JN. Toward the development ofmetal-based synthetic nucleases and peptidases: a rationale and progress report in applying the principles of coordination chemistry. Coord Chem Rev 1998;173:133-65.
6. Casella L, Gullotti M. Synthesis, stereochemistry, andoxygenation of cobalt(II)-pyridoxal model complexes, A new family of chiral dioxygen carriers. Inorg Chem 1986;25:1293-303.
7. Aminabhavi TM, Biradar NS, Patil SB, Roddabasanagoudar VL, Rudzinski WE. aminoacid schiï¬€ base complexes of dimethyldichlorosilane. Inorg Chim Acta1985;107:231-4.
8. Sattari D, Alipour E, Shirani S, Amighian JJ. Metal complexes of N-salicylideneamino acids. Inorg Biochem 1992;45:115-25.
9. Sigman DS, Mazumder A, Perrin DM. Chemical nucleases. Chem Rev 1993;93:2295-316.
10. Wang MZ, Meng ZX, Liu BL, Cai GL, Zhang CL, Wang XY, et al. Novel tumor chemotherapeutic agents and tumor radio-imaging agents: potential tumor pharmaceuticals of ternary copper(II) complexes. Inorg Chem Commun 2005;8:368-71.
11. Sharma V, Piwnica-Worms D. Metal complexes for therapy and diagnosis of drug resistance. Chem Rev 1999;99:2545-60.
12. Wolfe A, Shimer Jr GH, Meehan T. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons physically intercalate into duplex regions ofdenatured DNA. Biochemistry 1987;26:6392-6.
13. Soliman AA, Linert W. Investigations on new transitionmetal chelates of the 3-methoxy-salicylidene-2-aminothiophenol schiï¬€ base. Thermochim Acta 1999;338:67-75.
14. Zhang C, Janiak CJ. Six-coordinated zinc complexes: [Zn(II)(H2O)4(phen)](NO3)2â€¢H2O and [Zn(II)NO3 (H2O)(bipy) (Him)]NO3 (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, bipy = 2,2â€™-bipyridine and Him =imidazole). J Chem Crystallogr 2001;31:29-35.
15. Patra AK, Nethaji M, Chakravarty AR. Synthesis, crystal structure, DNA binding and photo-induced DNAcleavage activity of (S-methyl-l-cysteine)copper(II) complexesof heterocyclic bases. J Inorg Biochem 2007;101:233-44.
16. Ji L N, Zou XH, Liu JG. Shape-selective and enantioselective interaction of Ru(II)/Co(III) polypyridyl complexes with DNA. Coord Chem Rev 2001;513:216-7.
17. Nagababu P, Naveena J, Latha L, Satyanarayana S. DNA-Binding studies of mixed-ligand (Ethylenediamine) ruthenium(II) complexes. Chem Biodiversity 2006;3:1219-28.
18. Kelly SO, Antimicrob, Barton JK, In Sigel A, Sigel H. Eds. Metal ions in biological systems. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1998.
19. Baquero F. Gram-positive resistance: challenge for the development of new antibiotics. J Chemother 1997;39 (Suppl A):1-6.
20. Rice LB. Unmet medical needs in antibacterial therapy. Biochem Pharmacol 2006;71:991-5.
21. Mahalakshmi R, Raman N. Enthused research on DNA-binding and DNA-Cleavage aptitude of mixed ligand metal complexes. Spectrochim Acta Part A 2013;112:198-205.
22. Raman N, Mahalakshmi R, Mitu L. Bio-sensitive activities of coordination compounds containing 1,10-phenanthroline as co-ligand: synthesis, structural elucidation and DNA binding properties of metal(II) complexes. Spectrochim Acta Part A 2014;131:355-64.
23. Raman N, Mahalakshmi R. Bio active mixed ligand complexes of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II): Synthesis, spectral, XRD, DNA binding and cleavage properties. Inorg Chem Commun 2014;40:157-63.
24. Raman N, Mahalakshmi R, Arun T, Packianathan S, Rajkumar R. Metal based pharmacologically active complexes of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II): synthesis, spectral, XRD, antimicrobial screening, DNA interaction and cleavage investigation. J Photochem Photobiol B 2014;138:211-22.
25. Raman N, Sobha S, Selvaganapathy M. Probing the DNA-binding behavior of tryptophan incorporating mixed-ligand complexes. Monatsh Chem 2012;143:1487-95.
26. Sakthivel A, Raman N, Mitu L. DNA interaction studies of pyrazolone-and diimine-incorporated Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) complexes: synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and antimicrobial study. Monatsh Chem 2013;144:605-20.
27. Patel RN, Singh N, Shukla K, Chauhan UK, NiclÃ³s-GutiÃ©rrez J, CastiÃ±eiras A, et al. Magnetic, spectroscopic, structural and biological properties of mixed-ligand complexes of copper(II) with N,N,Nâ€²,Nâ€³,Nâ€³-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine and polypyridine ligands. Inorg Chim Acta 2014;357:2469-76.
28. Shiva Prasad K, Shiva Kumar L, Prasad M, Jayalakshmi B, Revanasiddappa HD. Synthesis, spectral characterization, DNA interaction studies, anthelmintic andantimicrobial activity of transition metal complexes with 3-(2-hydroxy-benzylideneamino)-2-methylquinazolin-4(3H)-one and 1,10 phenanthroline. Biointerface Res Appl Chem 2011;1:127-38.
29. Neelakantan MA, Esakkiammal M, Mariappan SS, Dharmaraja J, Jeyakumar T. Synthesis characterization and biocidal activities of some schiff base metal complexes. Indian J Pharm Sci 2010;72:216-22.
30. Sabale PM, Patel J, Patel Y. Metal. Complexes: current trends and future potential. Int J Pharm Biol Sci 2012;2:251-65.
31. Sreekanth B, Vishnuvardhan TK, Pillai VV, Murali Krishna P, Gobal Reddy NP, Reddy JM, et al. Synthesis, characterization, anti-microbial and DNA binding studies on Mn(II) and Zn(II) metal complexes containing mixed ligands. Int J Chem Tech Res 2013;5:2540-7.
32. Ramesh R, Maheswaran S. Synthesis, spectra, dioxygen affinity and antifungal activity of Ru(III)Schiff base complexes. J Inorg Biochem 2003;96:457-62.
33. Raman N, Kulandaisamy A, Jeyasubramanian K. Syhthesis, spectral, redox and antimicrobial activity of schiff transition metal (II) complexes derived from 4-aminoantipyrine and Benzil. Synth React Inorg Met-Org Nano-Met Chem 2002;32:1583-610.
34. Sorenson JRJ. Copper complexes in biochemistry and pharmacology. Chem Br 1984;16:1110-2.
35. Collman JP, Halbert TR, Suslick KS, Spiro TG. Ed. Metal ion activation of dioxygen. John Wiley New York; 1980. p. 1â€“72.
36. Marin Hernandez A, Gracia MoraI, Ruiz Ramirez L, Moreno Sanchez R. Toxic effects of copper-based antineoplastic drugs (CasiopeinasÂ®) on mitochondrial functions. Biochem Pharm 2003;65:1979-89.
37. Sathyadevi P, Krishnamurthy P, Rachel RB, Alan HC, Nallasamy D. Synthesis of novel heterobimetalliccopper(I) hydrazone schiff base complexes: a comparative study on the effect of heterocyclic hydrazides towards interaction with DNA/protein, free radical scavenging and cytotoxicity. Metallomics 2012;4:498-511.
38. Andrew K, Howe O, Connor M, McCann M, Creaven BS, McClean S, et al. Radical-induced DNA damage by cytotoxic square-planar copper(II) complexes in corporating o-phthalate and 1,10-phenanthroline or 2,2â€™dipyridyl. Free Radical Biol Med 2012;53:564-76.
39. Anbu S, Paul A, Ravishankaran R, Guedes MFC, Karande AA, Pombeiro AJL, et al. Phenyl carbohydrazone conjugated 2-oxoindoline as a new scaffold that augments the DNA and BSA binding affinity and anti-proliferative activity of a 1,10-phenanthroline based copper(II) complex. Inorg Chim Acta 2014;423:183â€“93.
40. Ganeshpandian M, Ramakrishnan S, Palaniandavar M, Suresh E, Riyasdeen A, Akbarsha MA, et al. Mixed ligand copper(II) complexes of 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline: tridentate 3N primary ligands determine DNA binding and cleavage and cytotoxicity. J Inorg Bio Chem 2014;140:202-12.
41. Inci D, Aydin R, Yilmaz D, Mutlu Genckal H, Vatan O, Cinkilic N, et al. New water-soluble copper (II) complexes including 4,7-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline and L-tyrosine: Synthesis, characterization, DNA interactions and cytotoxicities. Spectrochim Acta Part A 2015;136:761â€“70.
42. Sebastian I, Natalia A, Maria HT, Eduardo K, Javier E, Ronny RR, et al. Synthesis, structural characterization and cytotoxic activity of ternary copper(II)â€“dipeptideâ€“phenanthroline complexes. A step towards the development of new copper compounds for the treatment of cancer. J Inorg Biochem 2014;139:117â€“23.
43. Lakshmipraba J, Arunachalam S, Riyasdeen A, Dhivya R, Akbarsha MA. Polyethyleneimine anchored copper(II) complexes: synthesis, characterization, in vitro DNA binding studies and cytotoxicity studies. J Photochem Photobiol B 2015;142:56-67.
44. Krikavova R, Vanco J, Travncek Z, Buchtk R, Dvoak Z. Copper(II) quinolinonato-7-carboxamido complexes as potent antitumor agents with broad spectra and selective effects. RSC Adv 2016;6:3899-909.