ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF TWO ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI ISOLATED FROM MELASTOMA MALABATHRICUM L. LEAVES
Objective: The objectives of this study were to isolate endophytic fungi from Melastoma malabathricum L. leaves and to study their antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials.
Methods: Disc diffusion method and Agar well diffusion method was carried out for studying the antibacterial and antifungal range of the isolated endophytes MMF5 and MMF9. DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-2-picrilhydrazyl) reduction assay was followed for the study of antioxidant activities of the isolated. CFU counting method was followed for determining the MICs of the isolates against two selected bacteria and to know the mode of action.
Results: Two endophytic fungi have been isolated which were identified as species of Penicillium by studying their morphology under a compound light microscope. Both were found to show great antibacterial activities against Gram-negative as well as Gram-positive bacteria. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) value of the ethyl acetate extracts of MMF5 and MMF9 were found to be 150Âµg/ml and 100Âµg/ml respectively for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with the bacteriostatic mode of action. They also exhibited good antifungal activities against an animal as well as plant pathogenic fungi. IC50 value of MMF5 and MMF9 in an antioxidant assay using stable DPPH radical was found to be 52.38Î¼g/ml and 24.44Î¼g/ml respectively in comparison to the control ascorbic acid having the value 8.5Î¼g/ml.
Conclusion: From this study, it can be said that due to having good antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, the strains can be used as a prospective source in the medicinal industry for the drug development.Keywords: Melastoma malabathricum, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Indigenous plants, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, Bacteriostatic
2. Costa FG, Zucchi TD, Melo ISde. Biological control of phytopathogenic fungi by endophytic actinomycetes isolated from maize (Zea mays L.). Braz Arch Biol Technol 2013;56:948-55.
3. Maciaâ€™-Vicente JG, Jansson HB, Mendgen K, Lopez-Llorca LV. Colonization of barley root by endophytic fungi and their reduction of take-all caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. Can J Microbiol 2008;54:600â€“9.
4. Maciaâ€™-Vicente JG, Jansson HB, Samir K, Abdullah SK, Descals E, Salinas J, et al. Fungal root endophytes from natural vegetation in Mediterranean environments with special reference to Fusarium spp. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2008;64:90â€“105.
5. Freeman S, Rodriguez RJ. Genetic conversion of a fungal plant pathogen to a nonpathogenic, endophytic mutualist. Science 1993;260:75â€“8.
6. Schulz B, Rommert AK, Dammann U, Aust HJ, Strack D. The endophyte-host interaction: a balanced antagonism? Mycol Res 1999;10:1275â€“83.
7. Mcinroy JA, Kloepper JW. Survey of indigenous bacterial endophytes from cotton and sweet corn. Plant Soil 1995;173:337-42.
8. Fisher PJ, Petrini O, Scott HML. The distribution of some fungal and bacterial endophytes in maize (Zea mays L.). New Phytol 1992;122:299-305.
9. Lodewyckx C, Vangronsveld J, Porteous F, Moore ERB, Taghavi S, Mezgeay M. Endophytic bacteria and their potential applications. Crit Rev Plant Sci 2002;21:583-606.
10. Rai R, Dash PK, Prasanna BM, Singh A. Endophytic bacterial flora in the stem tissue of a tropical maize (Zea mays L.) genotype: isolation, identification, and enumeration. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2007;23:853-8.
11. Stierle A, Strobel G, Stierle D. Taxol and taxane production by Taxomyces andreanae, an endophytic fungus of pacific yew. Science 1993;260:214-6.
12. Bhagobaty RK, Joshi SR. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of endophytic fungi isolated from ethnomedicinal plants of the â€œSacred forestsâ€ of Meghalaya, India. Mikol Lek 2012;19:5-11.
13. Awadh A, Ali N, Al-rahwi K, Lindequis U. Some medicinal plants used in Yemeni herbal medicine to treat Malaria. Afr J Tradit Complementary Altern Med 2004;1:72-6.
14. Toledo BA, Galetto L, Colantonio S. Ethnobotanical knowledge in rural communities of Cordoba (Argentina): the importance of cultural and biogeographical factors. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2009;5:40-4.
15. Joffry SMd, Yob NJ, Rofiee MS, Affandi MMR, Meor Md, Suhaili Z, Othman F, et al. Melastoma malabathricum (L.) smith ethnomedicinal uses, chemical constituents, and pharmacological properties: a review. J Evidence-Based Complementary Altern Med 2012;1-48. Doi.org/ 10.1155/ 2012/258434. [Article in Press]
16. Mamat SS, Kamarolzaman MdFF, Yahya F, Mahmood ND, Shahril MdS, Jakius KF, et al. Methanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum leaves exerted antioxidant and liver protective activity in rats. BMC Complementary Altern Med 2013;13:326-31.
17. Sarbadhikary SB, Bhowmik S, Datta BK, Mandal NC. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of leaf extracts of two indigenous angiosperm species of tripura. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 2015;4:643-55.
18. Bauer AW, Kirby WMM, Sherrie JC, Tuck M. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized disc diffusion method. Am J Clin Pathol 1966;45:493-6.
19. Ray B, Schamber R, Miller KW. The pediocin AcH precursor is biologically active. Appl Environ Microbiol 1999;65:2281-6.
20. Fernandez-Garayzabal JF, Delgado C, Blanco M, Vazquez-Boland JA, Briones V, Suarez G, et al. Role of potassium tellurite and brain heart infusion in the expression of the hemolytic phenotype of Listeria spp. on agar plates. Appl Environ Microbiol 1992;58:434-8.
21. Braca A, Sortino C, Politi M, Morelli I, Mendez J. Anti-oxidant activity of flavonoids from Licania licaniaeflora. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;79:379-81.