PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF STROBILANTHES BLUME SPECIES FROM NORTHERN WESTERN GHATS OF INDIA
Objective: The chief phytoconstituents in ten Strobilanthes species of both leaf and stem were identified in order to relate the presence of biological and pharmacological activities.
Methods: Strobilanthes species were collected from Northern Western Ghats of India and phytochemicals such as alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, proteins, phytosterols, terpenoids, fixed oils, phenolics and flavonoids were analyzed using standard methods.
Results: Strobilanthes species of both leaf and stem showed the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, fixed oils, carbohydrates. Terpenoids and phytosterols are also present in all species of Strobilanthes. On the other hand, phenolics, carbohydrates, flavonoids are found in most of the species of Strobilanthes. In addition, alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, proteins, fixed oils are found some species of Strobilanthes. Among the species studied, the stem of S. integrifolius, S. ixiocephalus, S. reticulatus var. reticulatus, Strobilanthes Blume sp. and leaf of S. lupulinus, S. barbatus showed the absence of alkaloids. Glycosides were present only in S. ciliatus (leaf), S. callosus (stem) and S. heyneanus (stem). Saponins were found in S. ciliatus (leaf), S. ixiocephalus (leaf, stem), S. callosus (leaf) and leaf and stem of S. heyneanus. Proteins were found only in the stem of S. callosus and S. sessilis var. ritchiei. Fixed oils also are known as carrier oils were moderately found in the Strobilanthes species.
Conclusion: Thus, the detection of phytochemical constituents in ten Strobilanthes species is important in interpreting the medicinal properties and pharmacological value of the species.
2. Nurraihana H, Norfarizan-Hanoon NA. Phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology properties of Strobilanthes crispus. Int Food Res J 2013;20:2045-56.
3. Harborne JB. Phytochemicals methods-a guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. 2nd edition. Chapman and Hall Publishing Company Ltd., London; 1973. p. 275-95.
4. Raaman N. Phytochemical techniques: New India Publishing Agency, New Delhi; 2006. p. 306.
5. Brahma Srinivasa Rao Desu, Elango K, Kumar Satish MN, Suresh B, Manimaran S, Nanjan MJ. In vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-osteoarthritic activities of Strobilanthes kunthianus and Strobilanthes cuspidatus. Int J Res Pharm Chem 2011;1:1265-8.
6. Brijyog, Singh B, Das S, Maithi A. Antioxidant property for a lipophilic extract of Strobilanthes kunthiana flowers. Indian J Res Pharm Biotechnol 2014;2:1005-9.
7. Singh B, Sahu PM, Sharma MK. Anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities of triterpenoids from Strobilanthes callosus Nees. Phytomedicine 2002;9:355-9.
8. Agarwal RB, Rangari VD. Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities of Lupeol and 19a-H Lupeol isolated from Strobilanthes callosus and Strobilanthes ixiocephala roots. Indian J Pharmacol 2003;35:384-7.
9. Margareth BC Gallo, Miranda J Sarachine. Biological activities of lupeol. Int J Biomed Pharm Sci 2009;3:46-66.
10. Venkatachalapathi S, Subban Ravi. Isolation and quantification of lupeol in Strobilanthes ciliatus nees by HPTLC method. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012;4:405-8.
11. Sarpate RV, Tupkari SV. Quantification of lupeol Isolated from Strobilanthus callosus Nees using the validated high-performance thin layer chromatography method. Int J PharmTech Res 2012;4:963-69.
12. Raju PM, Babu Aravind GD, Kumar RB, Rajashekar HC. The role of phytosterols enriched foods-a review. J Environ Sci Toxicol Food Technol 2013;7:40-7.
13. Ningombam DS, Konsam SC, Singh PK. Nutritive value of Strobilanthes auriculata Nees (Acanthaceae) a pliestial plant of Manipur, Northeast India. Int J Sci Res 2014;3:38-40.
14. Pandey BK, Rizvi IS. Plant polyphenols as dietary antioxidants in human health and disease. Oxid Med Cell Longevity 2009;2:270-8.
15. Mudgil D, Barak S. Composition, properties and health benefits of indigestible carbohydrate polymers as dietary fiber: a review. Int J Biol Macromol 2013;61:1-6.
16. Bourdon E, Blache D. The importance of proteins in defense against oxidation. Antioxid Redox Signaling 2004;3:293-311.