ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ANTHOCEPLALUS CADAMBA AND SCIRPUS KYSOOR ROXB. AGAINST FOOD PATHOGENS
Keywords:Anthocephalus cadamba, Scirpus kysoor Roxb, Antimicrobial activity, MIC, MBC
Objective: Aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of ripened and unripened fruits of Anthocephalus cadamba and Scirpus kysoor Roxb. tuber against food pathogens.
Methods: Different solvent extracts of Anthocephalus cadamba fruits and Scirpus kysoor Roxb. tubers were screened for its antimicrobial activity against Gram negative and Gram positive bacterial cultures by agar well diffusion method as well as by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). MIC was carried out by broth microdilution method.
Results: All the plant materials exhibit antimicrobial activity. Among all plant materials, macerated ethyl acetate extract of Scirpus kysoor Roxb. tuber showed lowest MIC against Bacillus Cereus 0.312 mg/ml. In the case of ripened Anthocephalus cadamba fruits, macerated ethanol extract was found to be more potent whereas in the case of unripened Anthocephalus cadamba fruit macerated ethyl acetate extract was found to be more active on the basis of MIC.
Conclusion: This study revealed that all the plant materials possess significant antimicrobial activity against food pathogens hence may be used as a source of safe herbal antimicrobial agent.
Mendel Friedman, Philip R Henika, Robert E Mandrell. Bactericidal activities of plant essential oils and some of their isolated constituents against Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enteri. J Food Prot 2002;68:1545â€“60.
Antara Sen, Amlan Batra. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of different solvent extracts of medicinal plant: Melia Azedarach L. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2012;4:67-73.
Bin Shan, Yi-Zhong Cai, John D, Brooks, Horold Corke. Antibacterial properties and major bioactive components of cinnamon stick (Cinnamomumburmannii): Activity against foodborne pathogenic bacteria. J Agric Food Chem 2007;55:5484-90.
Dubey A, Nayak S, Goupale DC. A review on phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological studies. Pharm Lett 2011;3:45-54.
Mishra RP. Antibacterial properties of Anthocephalus cadamba Fruits. Webmed Central Ayurvedic Med 2011;2:WMC002073.
Mishra RP. A comparative study and extract optimization for antimicrobial properties of different parts of Anthocephalus cadamba. Webmed Central Ayurvedic Med 2013;4:WMC002116.
Sandhya I, Durve A. Isolation and characterization of the antimicrobial compound from fruits of AnthocephalusIndicusA. Rich. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:285-91.
Umachigi SP, Kumar GS, Jayaveera K, Kishore KDV, Ashok KCK, Dhanapal R. Antimicrobial, wound healing and antioxidant activities of Anthocephalus cadamba. African journal of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicines. Afr Networks Ethnomed 2007;4:481-7.
The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. (Part-1, Vol-1). The government of India (Ministry of Health and family welfare); 2007. p. 92-3.
Brahmshankar Mishra, Rupalalji Vaishya. Bhavaprakash Nighantu. (part-1). Chaikhamba Sanskrit Sansthan, Varanasi; 1990. p. 701-2.
Handa SS. An overview of extraction techniques for medicinal and aromatic plants. In: Handa SS, Khanuja S, Longo G, Rakesh DD. Editors. Extraction technologies for medicinal and aromatic plants Trieste (Italy): International Centre for Science and high Technology (ICS-UNIDO); 2008. p. 21-52.
K Das, RKS Tiwari, DK Shrivastava. Techniques for evaluation of medicinal plant products as antimicrobial agent: current methods and future trends. J Med Plants Res 2010;4:104-11.
Performance Standards For Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. 21st Informational Supplement by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), Document M100-S21; 2011. p. 30.
Irshad S, Maryum M, Farzana P. In vitro antibacterial activities of three medicinal plants using agar well diffusion method. Res J Biol 2012;2:1-8.
Andrews JM. Determination of minimum inhibitory concentration. J Antimicrob Chemother 2001;48:5-16.
Thongson C, Davidson PM, Mahakarrchanakul W, Weiss J. Antimicrobial activity of ultrasound-associated solvent extracted species. Lett Appl Microbiol 2004;39:401-6.
Methods For Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests For Bacteria That Grow Aerobically; Approved Standardâ€“Seventh Edition. By Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI). Document M7-A7; 2006. p. 26.
Wesler A, Geiss HK, Saller R, Reichiling J. A novel colorimetric broth microdilution method to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antibiotics and essential oil against helicobacter pyroli. Pharmazie 2005;60:498-502.
Lagnika L, Anago E, Atindehou M, Atindehou M, Adjahoutonon B, Dramane K, et al. Antimicrobial activity of Crataeva Religiosa forst against bacteria isolated from thryonomysswinderianus temmink. Afr J Biotechnol 2011;10:10034-9.
Andrews JM. Determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations. J Antimicrob Chemother 2001;48(S1);S-16.
Pundir RK, Jain P, Sharma C. Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts of Syzygiumaromaticum and Alliumsativum against food-associated bacteria and fungi. Ethnobotanical Leaflets 2010:14:344-60.
Noumedem J, Mihasan M, Lacmata S, Stefan M, Kuiate J, Kuete V. Antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of ten cameroonian vegetables against gram-negative multidrug-resistant bacteria. BMC Complementary Altern Med 2013;13:26.
Cowan MM. Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clin Microbiol Rev 1999;12:564â€“82.
Djeussi DE, Noumedem JA, Seukep JA, Fankam AG, Voukeng IK, Tankeo SB, et al. Antibacterial activities of selected edible plants extracts against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. BMC Complementary Altern Med 2013; 13:164.
Ncube NS, Afolayan AJ, Okoh AI. Assessment techniques of antimicrobial properties of natural compounds of plant origin: current methods and future trends. Afr J Biotechnol 2008;7:1797-806.