RUELLIA TUBEROSA LINN. ACTS AS ANTI-FERTILITY AGENT THAT REDUCES SPERM COUNT, MOTILITY AND VIABILITY IN MALE SWISS ALBINO MICE (MUS-MUSCULUS)
Objective: Fertility control is an issue of global public health. Many of the contraceptives available today have one or the other side effects. Many plants and plant products are suggested as contraceptives in folk and traditional systems of medicine. However, that are least exploited in this regard. In the present investigation, root powder of Ruellia tuberosa was studied for its effect on male reproduction in mice.
Methods: The Swiss albino mice, Mus musculus of age three months were grouped into four, i)control group, fed on standard pellet, ii)experimental groups I and II received root powder of Ruellia tuberosa 50 mg/mouse/days for 15 d and 30 d respectively in the pellets, iii)positive control groups I and II received cotton seed oil 25 Âµl/mouse/day for 15 and 30 d and iv)recovery group received Ruellia tuberosa (50 mg/mouse/days) containing pellets for 15 d and later standard pellet for 15 d. Cauda epididymis sperm suspension was analyzed for sperm count, motility and viability.
Results: There was a highly significant decrease in sperm count, motility and viability (p<0.001) in experimental groups I and II and positive control groups I and II. The sperm count was reduced to 19.24Â±1.74 million/ml and 15.97Â±5.61 million/ml as compared to sperm count in control group (55.12Â±4.63 million/ml) in experimental groups. Partial reversal of the effect was noticed in a recovery group.
Conclusion: The results suggest that Ruellia tuberosa can be a potent member of reversible oral male contraceptives.
2. Beckman LJ, Harvey SM. Factors affecting the consistant use of barrier methods of contraception. Obstet Gynecol 1996;88:65-71.
3. Moore PJ, Adler NE, Kegeles SM. Adolescents and the contraceptive pill: the impact of beliefs on intentions and use. Obstet Gynecol 1996;88:48-56.
4. Chiu NY, Chang KH. The illustrated medicinal plants of Taiwan. Mingtong Med J 1995;226:1.
5. Ditamanku YM. Fever Rootâ€“Ruellia tuberosa Linn; 2011.
6. Swarnkar S, Katewa SS. Ethnobotanical observation on tuberous plants from tribal area of Rajasthan (India). Ethnobotanical Leaflets 2008;12:647-66.
7. Clarke HE, Coates ME, Eva JK, Ford DJ, Milner CK, Oâ€™Donoghue PN, et al. Dietary standards for laboratory animals: report of the laboratory animal center diets advisory committee. Laboratory Animals 1977;11:1-28.
8. Chakrabarti K, Pal S, Bhattacharya AK. Sperm immobilisation activity of Allivum sativum L. and other plant extracts. Asian J Androl 2003;5:131-5.
9. World Health Organization Laboratory. Manual for examination of semen and sperm-cervical mucus interaction. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge; 1992.
10. Prasad MRN, Chinoy NJ, Kadam KM. Changes in succinate dehydrogenase levels in rat epididymis under normal and altered physiological condition. Fertil Steril 1972;23:186-90.
11. Talbot P, Chacon RS. A triple stain technique for evaluating normal acrosome reaction of the human sperm. J Exp Zool 1981;215:201-8.
12. Lohiya NK, Mishra PK, Pathak N, Manivannan B, Jain SC. Reversible azoospermia by oral administration of the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in rabbits. Adv Contracept 1999a;15:141-61.
13. Lohiya NK, Pathak N, Mishra PK, Manivannan B. Reversible contraception with chloroform extract of Carica papaya Linn. seeds in male rabbits. Reprod Toxicol 1999b;13:59-66.
14. Lohiya NK, Manivannan B, Mishra PK, Pathak N, Sriram S, Bhande SS, et al. Chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds induces long-term reversible azoospermia in langur monkey. Asian J Androl 2002;4:17-26.
15. Saba AB, Oridupa OA, Oyeyemi MO, Osanyigbe OD. Spermatozoa morphology and characteristics of male Wistar rats administered with ethanolic extract of Lagenaria breviflora Roberts. Afr J Biotechnol 2009;8:1170-5.
16. Parveen S, Das S, Kundra CP, Pereira BM. A comprehensive evaluation of the reproductive toxicity of Quassia amara in male rats. Reprod Toxicol 2003;17:45-50.
17. Chinoy NJ, Padman P. Antifertility investigation on the benzene extract of Carica papaya seeds in male albino rats. J Med Aromatic Plant Sci 1996;19:422-6.
18. Sharma S, Kumar M, Goyal RB, Manivannan B, Lohiya NK. Reversible antispermatogenic effect of Gossypol on langur monkey (Preshytis entellus). Adv Contracept 1999;15:15-27.
19. Lohiya NK, Goyal RB. Antifertility investigation of the crude chloroform extract of Carica papaya Linn. Seeds in male albino rats. Indian J Exp Biol 1992;30:1051-5.
20. Gupta RS, Yadav RK, Dixit VP, Dobhal MP. Antifertility studies of Colebrookia oppositifolia leaf extract in male rats with special reference to testicular cell population dynamics. Fitoterapia 2001;72:263-45.
21. Gupta RS, Kanwar M, Rehwani H, Verma SK, Dobhal MP. Contraceptive efficacy of Strychnos potatorum seed extract in male albino rat. Asian J Exp Sci 2006;20:181-7.
22. Sathiyaraj K, Sivaraj A, Thirumalai T, Baskaran N, Vinothrasu K, Inbasekar P, et al. Antifertility activity of aqueous leaf extract of Andrographis paniculata in male albino Rats. Int J Pharm Biol Arch 2011;2:1179-82.
23. Bedford JM. The significance of the need for sperm capacitation better fertilisation in eutherian mammals. Biol Rep 1993;28:108-20.
24. Khan PK, Awasthy KS. Cytogenetic toxicity of Neem. Food Chem Toxicol 2003;41:1325-8.
25. Qiu Y, Wang L, Jia Y, Yang D, Zhang M, Zhang Y, et al. Effects of the crude extract of Polygala tenuifolia willd on human sperm in vitro. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2011;12:448-54.
26. Vasudeva N, Raj G, Sharma SK. Antispermatogenic activity of Butea monosperma (Lam.). Asian J Biol Sci 2011;4:591-600.
27. Farnsworth NR, Waller DP. Current status of plant products reported to inhibit sperm. In: Zatuchni GI. editor. Research frontiers in Fertility regulation 1982;2:1-16.
28. Arirudran B, Sarawathy A, Krishnamurthy V. Pharmacognostic and Preliminary phytochemical studied on Ruelliatuberosa L. (whole plant). â€‚Pharmacogn J 2011;3:29-34.
29. Chothani DL, Mishra SH, Patel MB. Phytochemical screening and physiochemical evaluation of various parts of Ruelliatuberosa Linn. Inventi Rapid: Endopharmacology; 2011. p. 228.
30. Zhou JY, Zhung Y, Zhang SX, Bo AH, Han SQ. A histological study on the effect of gossypol on anterior lobe of pituitary of castrated frogs. Acta Anat Sin 1981;12:101-6.