IN SILICO STUDIES OF THE SECONDARY METABOLITES OF SOLANUM TORVUM SW. FOR THEIR ANTIASTHMATIC ACTIVITY
Objective: Solanum torvum Sw., Family: Solanaceae, commonly known as Turkey Berry is used by the traditional tribes for the treatment of cold, cough, tuberculosis, hepatotoxicity, cancer, etc. The action of the plant towards the treatment of these diseases has been proven except for asthma. The present study is to prove the antiasthmatic activity of methanolic extract and the secondary metabolites of Solanum torvum Sw using in silico docking studies in compare to reference standard Dexamethasone, a synthetic cortisone derivative.
Methods: The GC-MS analysis of the dried methanolic extract of the dried fruits of Solanum torvum Sw. and the total saponin fraction has been carried out to know the important moieties that are responsible for the antiasthmatic activity.
Results: The results from the docking studies showed that the compounds Cholesta-5,7,9-(11)-trien-3-ol,4,4-dimethyl, (3Ã¡); Lanosta-7,9-(11),20-triene-3Î±, 18-diol, diacetate and Cholestan-26-oic acid,3,7,12,24-tetrakis (acetyloxy), methyl ester, (3Ã ,5Ã¡,7Ã ,12Ã ) were found to have significant scores of-6.8,-6.9 and-6.9 respectively towards Glucocorticoid receptor protein (Gr), (PDB id: 4UDC) which is very similar to the affinity of the standard (-7.1). These compounds passed the drug-likeness test. A modification in the structure can be brought, which makes the compounds more potent. The compounds 9, 12-Octadecadienoic acid, ethyl ester; Hexadecanoic acid, ethyl ester; 9-Octadecenoic acid (Z), methyl ester; Oxacycloheptadec-8-en-2-one, (8Z) have passed the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) filter of the drug-likeness test.
Conclusion: The antiasthmatic activity of the drug may be due to the similarity with the structure of Dexamethasone. Further research can be carried out in order to improve the clinical significance of these extracts and its metabolites.
2. Pradeep Kumar R. Beneficial effects of solanaceae towards oral health. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 2016;7;1393-6.
3. Ashok D Agarwal, Solanum Torvum Sw. A phyto-pharmacological review. Pharm Lett 2010;2:403-7.
4. Muhammed Arif, Sheeba Fareed. Pharmacognostical studies and evaluation of total phenolic and flavonoid contents of traditionally utilized fruits of Solanum torvum Sw. India J Nat Prod Resour 2011;2:218-24.
5. Zubaida Yousaf. Phytochemical and pharmacological studies on Solanum torvum Swartz. J Appl Pharm Sci 2013;3;152-60.
6. World Health Organization. Available from: http://www.who. int/topics/traditional_medicine/en/ [Last accessed on 20 Dec 2016]
7. British Guideline on the Management of Asthma; 2009. p. 4.
8. Carryer HM. Effects of cortisone on bronchial asthma and hay fever occurring in subjects sensitive to ragweed pollen. Proc Staff Meet Mayo Clin 1950;25:482â€“6.
9. VHJ van der Velden. Glucocorticoids: mechanisms of action and anti-inflammatory potential in asthma. Med Inflammation 1998;7:229â€“37.
10. Djukanovic R. The effect of treatment with oral corticosteroids on asthma symptoms and airway inflammation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997;155:826â€“32.
11. Booth H. Effect of high dose inhaled fluticasone propionate on airway inflammation in asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995;152:45-52.
12. Dahl R, Johansson SA. Importance of duration of treatment with inhaled budesonide on the immediate and late bronchial reaction. Eur J Respir Dis Suppl 1982;122:167â€“75.
13. Barnes PJ. Effect of corticosteroids on airway hyper-responsiveness. Am Rev Respir Dis 1990;141:S70â€“S76.
14. Culpitt SV. Impaired inhibition by dexamethasone of cytokine release by alveolar macrophages from patients with the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003;167:24-31.
15. Harborne JB. Phytochemical methods. In: Preliminary Phytochemical Screening. Chapman and Hall Ltd. London; 1973;1:156-89.
16. Trott O, Olson A J. AutoDockVina: improving the speed and accuracy of docking with a new scoring function, efficient optimization and multithreading. J Comput Chem 2010;31:455-61.