Int J Curr Pharm Res, Vol 9, Issue 5, 17-19Original Article


ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF GRACILARIA

CHALINI K., JOHNSON M.*, ADAIKALARAJ G., VIDYARANI GEORGE, RAMAKRISHNAN P.

Centre for Plant Biotechnology, Research Department of Botany, St. Xavier’s College (Autonomous), Palayamkottai, Tamil Nadu, India 627002
Email: ptcjohnson@gmail.com

Received: 20 May 2017, Revised and Accepted: 22 Jul 2017


ABSTRACT

Objective: In the present investigation an attempt was made to examine the anti-inflammatory potential of aqueous extracts of Gracilaria salicornia C. Ag., Gracilaria edulis (Gmelin) Silva, Gracilaria corticata J. Ag., Gracilaria fergusonii J. Ag.,and Gracilaria verrucosa (Hudson) Papenfus from Mandapam, Gracilaria edulis (Gmelin) Silva., Gracilaria verrucosa (Hudson) Papenfus from Pulicate Lake, Gracilaria fergusonii J. Ag., Gracilaria corticata J. Ag. and Gracilaria corticata J. Ag. var. cylindrica from Tuticorin using heat induced haemolysis of RBC. In addition, the present study is focused to reveal the locality specific anti-inflammatory activities of selected Gracillaria species.

Methods: The fresh seaweeds were boiled with distilled water (1:20 W/V) for 2 h. The slurry was filtered through Whatman No. 41 filter paper and condensed. The semi-solid crude extracts were used for anti-inflammatory analysis.

Results: An aqueous extracts of studied Gracilaria species were effective in inhibiting the heat induced haemolysis at different concentrations. The results showed the dose dependent protection. The percentage of anti-inflammatory activity of studied Gracillaria was varied from 43.81 to 95.55. The highest percentage (95.55%) of activity was observed in 250 µg/ml of G. edulis aqueous extracts. The anti-inflammatory activity of studied Gracillaria species at 250 µg/ml were as follows G. edulis (Mandabam)>G. corticata (Mandabam)>G. verucosa (Mandabam)>G. salicornia (Mandabam)>G. ferugosonii (Tuticorin)>G. ferugosonii (Mandabam)>G. edulis (Pulicate)>G. corticata (Tuticorin)>G. verucosa (Pulicate)>G. corticata var. cylindrica (Tuticorin).

Conclusion: The results of the present study clearly explained the anti-inflammatory potential of the studied Gracillaria species. The aqueous 0extracts of Gracillaria collected from Mandapam showed the highest percentage of protection activity. This study results confirm the existence of active principle responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity. Further studies are required to isolate the active principles without any side effects.

Keywords: Gracillaria, Seaweeds, Anti-inflammatory


INTRODUCTION

Due to the presence of a rich source of biologically active metabolites the seaweeds are a valuable pharmaceutical potential candidate for the drug development. The seaweed derived metabolites possess various biological activities especially with anti-inflammatory activities [1, 2]. Previous research on seaweeds polysaccharides revealed the anti-inflammatory properties and employed as an alternate candidate with anti-inflammatory [3, 4]. Several species of marine seaweeds are reported with anti-inflammatory activities viz., Gracilaria textorii and Gracilaria verrucosa [5, 6], Caulerpa [7], Caulerpa racemosa, Cystoseira crinita [8], Sargassum swartzii and Ulva reticulata [9], Dichotomaria obtusata [10], Gracilaria cornea [11], P. tetrastomatica and P. gymnospora [12], Dictyota menstrualis [13], Padina tertastomatica, Sargassum wightii, Gracilaria edulis and Caulerpa racemosa [14], Spatoglossum schroederi [15], Cladophora indica [16], Gracillaria edulis [17], Undaria Pinnatifida,, Laminaria Japonica, Sargassum fulvellum and Hizikia fusiforme [18] and Lobophora variegata [19]. Only very few studies were reported from the coast of Tamil nadu [14, 17, 19, 20]. But there is no report on the anti-inflammatory activities of fresh aqueous extracts of Gracillaria species from Tamil Nadu. In the present investigation an attempt was made to examine the anti-inflammatory potential of aqueous extracts of Gracilaria salicornia C. Ag., Gracilaria edulis (Gmelin) Silva, Gracilaria corticata J. Ag., Gracilaria fergusonii J. Ag.,and Gracilaria verrucosa (Hudson) Papenfus from Mandapam, Gracilaria edulis (Gmelin) Silva., Gracilaria verrucosa (Hudson) Papenfus from Pulicate Lake, Gracilaria fergusonii J. Ag., Gracilaria corticata J. Ag. and Gracilaria corticata J. Ag. var. cylindrica from Tuticorin using heat induced haemolysis of RBC. In addition, the present study is focused to reveal the locality specific anti-inflammatory activities of selected Gracillaria species.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Plant material

The Gracilaria salicornia C. Ag., Gracilaria edulis (Gmelin) Silva, Gracilaria corticata J. Ag., Gracilaria fergusonii J. Ag.,and Gracilaria verrucosa (Hudson) Papenfus were collected from Mandapam coast, Gracilaria edulis (Gmelin) Silva., Gracilaria verrucosa (Hudson) Papenfus from Pulicate Lake, Gracilaria fergusonii J. Ag., Gracilaria corticata J. Ag. and Gracilaria corticata J. Ag. var. cylindrica from Tuticorin, India. Further the species are identified using Phycologia Indica by Srinivasan [21]. The fresh seaweeds were used for extraction. The fresh seaweeds were boiled with distilled water (1:20 W/V) for 2 h. The slurry was filtered through Whatman No. 41 filter paper and condensed. The semi-solid crude extracts were used for anti-inflammatory analysis. For anti-inflammatory analysis, 10 mg crude extracts were dissolved in 10 ml of distilled water (W/V). From this, the aliquots 50, 100, 200 and 250 µg/ml were prepared.

Membrane stabilization

Preparation of red blood cells (RBCs) suspension

The Blood was collected from a healthy human volunteer who has not taken any NSAIDs (Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs) for 2 w prior to the experiment and transferred to the centrifuge tubes. The tubes were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 min and were washed three times with equal volume of normal saline. The volume of blood was measured and re constituted as 10% v/v suspension with normal saline [22, 23].

Heat induced haemolysis [22, 24]

The reaction mixture (2 ml) includes 1 ml of different concentrations of selected Gracilaria species aqueous extracts (50, 100, 200 and 250 µg/ml) and 1 ml of 10% RBCs suspension, instead of test sample the only saline was added to the control test tube. Aspirin was employed as a positive control. The reaction mixtures were incubated in water bath at 56 °C for 30 min. At the end of the incubation, the tubes were cooled under running tap water. The reaction mixtures were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 5 min and the absorbance of the supernatants was measured at 560 nm. The experiment was performed in triplicates for all the test samples.

The Percentage inhibition of Haemolysis was calculated as follows:

Percentage inhibition = (Abs control–Abs sample)/Abs control X 100

Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 21 software. Analysis of variance and pair wise Pearson correlation test was performed. The p<0.05 was considered significant.

RESULTS

Aqueous extracts of studied Gracilaria species were effective in inhibiting the heat induced haemolysis at different concentrations. The results showed the dose dependent protection (table 1). The percentage of anti-inflammatory activity of studied Gracillaria was varied from 43.81 to 95.55 (table 1). The highest percentage (95.55%) of activity was observed in 250 µg/ml of G. edulis aqueous extracts. The anti-inflammatory activity of studied Gracillaria species at 250 µg/ml were as follows (table 1) G. edulis (Mandabam)>G. corticata (Mandabam)>G. verucosa (Mandabam)>G. salicornia (Mandabam)>G. ferugosonii (Tuticorin)>G. ferugosonii (Mandabam)>G. edulis (Pulicate)>G. corticata (Tuticorin)>G. verucosa (Pulicate)>G. corticata var. cylindrica (Tuticorin) (table 1). The anti-inflammatory/protection activity of the aqueous extracts of studied Gracillaria species was significant at p<0.005. Among the three localities studied, the Gracillaria species collected from Mandabam showed more activity than other two studied localities. This may be due to soil nutritional composition and ecological conditions of the coast. A Pearson moment-correlation was run to determine the relationship between the individual concentrations and their protection ability. There was a strong positive correlation between the concentration and protection ability, which was statistically significant at p<0.05 level (2-tailed) (table 1). The correlation results clearly explained the dose dependent protection of the studied Gracillaria species.

Table 1: Anti-inflammatory activity of Gracillaria species

Species/

concentration

Locality % of protection Pearson correlation (r)
50 100 200 250
G. fergusonii. Tuticorin 63.98* 66.62* 70.10* 79.97 0.912
G. corticata 43.81 52.71 64.39* 71.07* 0.849

G. corticata

var. cylindrica

57.16 58.83* 66.34* 67.87* 0.862
G. edulis Pulicate Lake 45.06 59.94* 69.68* 74.55 0.968
G. verrucosa 47.15 57.44 59.53* 68.15* 0.974
G. salicornia Mandabam 52.57 73.99* 79.97 82.75 0.975
G. edulis 81.50 82.20 83.59 95.55 0.974
G. corticata 68.85* 86.65 89.85 90.54 0.949
G. fergusonii 56.61 61.47 74.83* 77.47* 0.995
G. verrucosa 69.82* 78.58* 80.39 87.90 0.958

*indicates the mean differences are significant at P<0.05 level.

DISCUSSION

In the present study, RBC membrane stabilization of method was used to determine the anti-inflammatory properties of Gracillaria species. Similar to that Dependra and Bisu [25] also employed the RBC membrane stabilization of method to determine the anti-inflammatory property. The varied frequency (43.81 to 95.55 %) of protection/activity depends on the phytochemical composition of the aqueous extracts of the studied Gracillaria species. The occurrence of flavonoids was observed in G. salicornia and G. corticata [26]. Krishnaveni and Johnson [27] reported the existence of alkaloids, saponins, steroids and tannins in the aqueous extracts of G. corticata. Flavonoids and triterpenoids occurrence was reported in G. edulis [28]. The existence of these metabolites may be responsible for the activity. Vijayalakshmi [17] observed more frequency 58.2% of anti-inflammatory activity in the aqueous extracts of G. edulis. The results of the present study also supplemented and coincided with Vijayalakshmi observations. But in the present study, G. edulis aqueous extracts showed 95.55% of activity. The results of the present study clearly explained the anti-inflammatory potential of the studied Gracillaria species. The aqueous extracts of Gracillaria collected from Mandapam showed the highest percentage of protection activity. This study results confirm the existence of active principle responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity. Further studies are required to isolate the active principles without any side effects. The result is identified an alternate source for the isolation of anti-inflammatory agent.

CONFLICT OF INTERESTS

Declare none

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How to cite this article

  • Chalini K, Johnson M, Adaikalaraj G, Vidyarani George, Ramakrishnan P. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extracts of Gracilaria. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2017;9(5):17-19.



About this article

Title

ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF GRACILARIA

Keywords

Gracillaria, Seaweeds, Anti-inflammatory

DOI

10.22159/ijcpr.2017v9i5.22130

Date

21-09-2017

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Manuscript Submission

Journal

International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research
Vol 9, Issue 5 (Aug-Sep), 2017 Page: 17-19

Online ISSN

0975-7066

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Authors & Affiliations

Chalini K.
Centre for Plant Biotechnology, Research Department of Botany, St. Xavier’s College (Autonomous), Palayamkottai, Tamil Nadu, India 627002
India

Johnson M.
Centre for Plant Biotechnology, Research Department of Botany, St. Xavier’s College (Autonomous), Palayamkottai, Tamil Nadu, India 627002
India

Adaikalaraj G
Centre for Plant Biotechnology, Research Department of Botany, St. Xavier’s College (Autonomous), Palayamkottai, Tamil Nadu, India 627002
India

Vidyarani George
Centre for Plant Biotechnology, Research Department of Botany, St. Xavier’s College (Autonomous), Palayamkottai, Tamil Nadu, India 627002
India

Ramakrishnan P.
Centre for Plant Biotechnology, Research Department of Botany, St. Xavier’s College (Autonomous), Palayamkottai, Tamil Nadu, India 627002
India


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