ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF GRACILARIA
Objective: In the present investigation an attempt was made to examine the anti-inflammatory potential of aqueous extracts of Gracilaria salicornia C. Ag., Gracilaria edulis (Gmelin) Silva, Gracilaria corticata J. Ag., Gracilaria fergusonii J. Ag.,and Gracilaria verrucosa (Hudson) Papenfus from Mandapam, Gracilaria edulis (Gmelin) Silva., Gracilaria verrucosa (Hudson) Papenfus from Pulicate Lake, Gracilaria fergusonii J. Ag., Gracilaria corticata J. Ag. and Gracilaria corticata J. Ag. var. cylindrica from Tuticorin using heat induced haemolysis of RBC. In addition, the present study is focused to reveal the locality specific anti-inflammatory activities of selected Gracillaria species.
Methods: The fresh seaweeds were boiled with distilled water (1:20 W/V) for 2 h. The slurry was filtered through Whatman No. 41 filter paper and condensed. The semi-solid crude extracts were used for anti-inflammatory analysis.
Results: An aqueous extracts of studied Gracilaria species were effective in inhibiting the heat induced haemolysis at different concentrations. The results showed the dose dependent protection. The percentage of anti-inflammatory activity of studied Gracillaria was varied from 43.81 to 95.55. The highest percentage (95.55%) of activity was observed in 250 Âµg/ml of G. edulis aqueous extracts. The anti-inflammatory activity of studied Gracillaria species at 250 Âµg/ml were as follows G. edulis (Mandabam)>G. corticata (Mandabam)>G. verucosa (Mandabam)>G. salicornia (Mandabam)>G. ferugosonii (Tuticorin)>G. ferugosonii (Mandabam)>G. edulis (Pulicate)>G. corticata (Tuticorin)>G. verucosa (Pulicate)>G. corticata var. cylindrica (Tuticorin).
Conclusion: The results of the present study clearly explained the anti-inflammatory potential of the studied Gracillaria species. The aqueous 0extracts of Gracillaria collected from Mandapam showed the highest percentage of protection activity. This study results confirm the existence of active principle responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity. Further studies are required to isolate the active principles without any side effects.
2. Serhan CN. Novel w-3-derived local mediators in anti-inflammation and resolution. Pharmacol Ther 2005;105:7-21.
3. Ravikumar S, Anburajan L, Ramanathan G, Kaliaperumal N. Screening of seaweed extracts against antibiotic resistant post operative infectious pathogen. Seaweed Res Utiln 2002;24:95-9.
4. Sureshkumar S, John JAC, Ravikumar S. Antimicrobial activity of acetone extracts of seaweeds against human pathogens. Seaweed Res Utiln 2002;24:111-5.
5. Okada Y, Miyauch N, Suzuki K, Kobayashi T, Tsutsui C, Mayuzumi K, et al. Search for naturally occurring substances for prevention against the complications of diabetes; inhibitory effect on aldose reductase and platelet aggregation. Nat Med 1994;48:324â€“9.
6. Yoshizawa Y, Tsunehiro J, Nomura K, Itoh M, Fukui F, Ametani A, et al. In vivo macrophage-stimulation activity of the enzyme-degraded water-soluble polysaccharide fraction from a marine alga (Gracilaria verrucosa). Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1996;60:1667â€“71.
7. De Souza ET, De Lira DP, De Queiroz AC, Da Silva DJC, De Aquino AB, Mella EAC, et al. The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of caulerpin, a bisindole alkaloid isolated from seaweeds of the genus Caulerpa. Mar Drugs 2009;7:689-704.
8. Mhadhebi L, Laroche-Clary A, Robert J, Bouraoui AR. Anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative and antioxidant activities of organic extracts from the Mediterranean seaweed, Cystoseira crinita. Afr J Biotechnol 2011;10:16682-90.
9. Hong DD, Hien HM, Anh HTL. Studies on the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Sargassum swartzii (Turner) C. Agardh (Phaeophyta) and Ulva reticulata Forsskal (Chlorophyta) in experiment animal models. Afr J Biotechnol 2011;10:2308-14.
10. Vazquez AIF, Sanchez CMD, Delgado NG, Alfonso AMS, Ortega YS, Sanchez HC. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of red seaweed Dichotomaria obtusata. Brazilian J Pharm Sci 2011;47:111-8.
11. Coura CO, de Araffljo IWF, Vanderlei EOS, Rodrigues JAG, Ana LGQ, Fontes BP, et al. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of sulphated polysaccharides from the red seaweed Gracilaria cornea. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2012;110:335â€“41.
12. Praveen NK, Kajal C. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of the aqueous extract and polysaccharide fraction from brown marine macro algae Padina sp. from the gulf of mannar of peninsular. India J Coastal Life Med 2013;1:39-49.
13. Albuquerque IRL, Cordeiro SL, Gomes DL, Dreyfuss JL, Alves Filgueira LG, Edda LL, et al. Evaluation of antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of a hetero-fucan from Dictyota menstrualis. Mar Drugs 2013;11:2722-40.
14. Radhika D, Veerabahu C, Priya R. Anti-inflammatory activities of some seaweed collected from the gulf of mannar coast, Tuticorin, South India. Int J Pharm Biol Sci 2013;4:39-44.
15. Junior SQ, Carneiro VHA, Fontenelle TPC, Chaves LDS, Mesquita JX, de Brito TV, et al. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of methanol extract and its fractions from the brown seaweed Spatoglossum schroederi. J Appl Phycol 2015;27:2367â€“76.
16. Neelam Begum, Rao DS. A preliminary study on the anti-inflammatory activity of marine green macro algae using wistar rats. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2015;34:241-4.
17. Vijayalakshmi S. Screening and anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts of seaweed Gracillaria edulis. Int J Modern Chem Appl Sci 2015:2:248-50.
18. Oh JH, Kim J, Lee Y. Anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic effects of brown seaweeds in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Nutr Res Practice 2016;10:42-8.
19. Thennarasan S, Murugesan S, Chidambaranathan N, Sivamurugan V. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity of the methanol extracts of brown alga Lobophora variegate (J. V. Lamouroux) Womersley ex E. C. Oliveir. Am J Phytomed Clin Ther 2016;4:42-57.
20. Ananthi S, Gayathri V, Chandronitha C, Lakshmisundaram R, Vasanthi HR. Free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory potential of a marine brown alga Turbinaria ornate (Turner) J Agardh. Indian J Geo-Marine Sci 2011;40:664-70.
21. Srinivasan KS. Phycologia Indica Botanical Survey of India, India; 1973.
22. Sakat S, Juvekar AR, Gambhire MN. In vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of Oxalis corniculata Linn. Int J Pharma Pharmacol Sci 2010;2:146-55.
23. Sadique J, Al-Rqobahs WA, EIGindi ABR. The bioactivity of certain medicinal plants on the stabilization of RBS membrane system. Fitoterapia 1989;60:525-32.
24. Shinde UA, Kulkarni KR, Phadke AS, Nair AM, Dikshit V, Mungantiwar J, et al. Mast cell stabilizing and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) Loud. Wood Oil. Indian J Exp Biol 1999;37:258-61.
25. Dependra C, Bisu S. Study of in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of ethnomedicinal plants of sikkim Viscum articulatum and Acorus calamus. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;9:119-22.
26. Alireza G, Leila S, Afsaneh Y. Cytotoxic, antioxidant and phytochemical analysis of Gracilaria species from the Persian Gulf. Adv Biomed Res 2016;5:139.
27. Krishnaveni E, Johnson M. Preliminary phytochemical, UV-VIS, HPLC and antibacterial studies on Gracilaria corticata. Asian Pacific J Trop Biomed; 2012. p. S568-S574.
28. Abirami RG, Kowsalya S. Phytochemical screening, microbial load and antimicrobial activity of underexploited seaweeds. Int Res J Microbiol 2012;3:328-32.