Int J Curr Pharm Res, Vol 10, Issue 1, 38-42Original Article

SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF AMIKACIN IN PURE AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM

SURYA TEJA G., GURUPADAYYA B. M.*, VENKATA SAIRAM K.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, JSS College of Pharmacy, Jagadguru Sri Shivarathreeshwara University, Mysore 570015, Karnataka, India
Email: bmgurupadayya@jssuni.edu.in

Received: 21 Oct 2017, Revised and Accepted: 12 Dec 2017


ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of the study was to develop an easy, sensible and rapid method for the estimation of amikacin in both pure and marketed formulation using the spectrophotometric method.

Methods: Due to lack of chromophoric group in the amikacin, it was derivatized with 0.1 mmol chloranillic acid reagent. For the estimation of amikacin, Shimadzu UV-1700 model spectrophotometer with UV probe software was used. The method was based on simple charge transfer complexation of the drug with a p-chloranillic acid reagent to give a purple coloured product which was measured at 524nm against blank solution.

Results: The derivatised product of amikacin was detected at a wavelength of 524 nm. Linearity was observed with the concentration range of 20-100 µg/ml with a regression coefficient of 0.9803. Results of all the parameters were within the acceptance criteria with % RSD less than 2.

Conclusion: The spectroscopic method was validated as per ICH guidelines and was found to be applicable for routine quantitative analysis of amikacin in marketed formulations also. The results of linearity, precision, accuracy LOD and LOQ were within the specified limits. The method is highly sensitive, robust, reproducible and specific.

Keywords: Amikacin, Analytical method development, ICH guidelines, Pharmaceutical dosage, Spectrophotometric.


INTRODUCTION

Amikacin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used for many gram-negative bacterial infections like infections in the urinary tract, infections in brain, lungs and abdomen which are resistant to gentamicin, kanamycin or tobramycin. When compared to other aminoglycosides amikacin has very narrow safety margin i.e., its therapeutic plasma concentration is 8-16 µg/ml. When it is given to renal impaired patients for over a period of time it shows ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity [1-3].

A detailed literature review indicated that there are few analytical and bioanalytical methods were reported like calorimetry [4], HPLC [5-8], LCMS [9] and immunoassay [9]. But till date, there were no reported methods for UV visible Spectroscopy by using choloranilic acid as a derivatizing agent. This method is simple, sensitive, rapid and can be possible to extend to HPLC method using similar reagent.

Fig. 1: Amikacin chemical structure

The structure of amikacin was shown in fig. 1, which has four primary amine groups, one secondary amine group, one primary OH group and seven secondary OH groups [10]. Direct UV methods are not available in literature because the drug is not absorbing in the UV region. Hence, it is essential to derivatize with 0.1% chloranilic acid using electron transfer reaction. The detailed chemical reaction between amikacin and chloranillic acid was shown in fig. 2.

METHODS AND MATERIALS

Equipment

Absorbance and spectral were measured by using Shimadzu UV-visible spectrophotometer model 1800 with 1 cm pair quartz cells. Shimadzu electronic weighing balance was used for weighing samples.

Chemicals and reagents

Amikacin Sulfate was procured from Shri Chem, Mumbai and Chloranillic acid was procured from Loba chem and acetonitrile from Merck.

Amikacin standard stock solution

100 mg pure drug of amikacin was taken into 100 ml volumetric flask and dissolved with distilled water and made up to mark with distilled water. Further 10 ml was taken from the above solution and diluted to 100 ml with distilled water to get 100µg/ml solution. From these serial dilutions were made to get 20,40,60,80 and 100 µg/ml solutions.

0.1% mmol chloranilic acid reagent [11, 12]

Solution A (1% chloranilic acid): 0.208 gms of cholranilic acid was weighed into 100 ml volumetric flask and dissolved in few ml of acetonitrile. Volume was made up to mark with acetonitrile.

Working solution B (0.1% choloranilic acid): From solution A pipette out 10 ml and dilute to 100 ml using acetonitrile.

Assay procedure

1 ml of the intramuscular injection containing 250 mg was transferred into 10 ml volumetric flask. It was dissolved using distilled water. Finally, volume was made up to 10 ml using distilled water. The solution was further diluted for analysis to get a concentration of 25µg/ml. The assay results are tabulated in table 2.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Validation of the method [13, 14]

According to ICH guidelines validation of the method was carried out. Linearity, accuracy, precision, selectivity, robustness and ruggedness parameters were done.

Linearity

A series of amikacin sulfate solutions were prepared in the range of 20-100µg/ml from the stock solution of 1000µg/ml. The resultant solution was measured at 524 nm against the reagent blank. The overlay graphs of absorption of the standard drug and calibration graph were shown in the fig. 2 and 3 respectively.

Accuracy

Accuracy is the nearness of the measured value to the obtained value of the sample.

To determine this three different standard concentrations of 50%, 100% and 150% are added to the sample which is procured from the market. The results obtained for the spiked drug are given in % recovery (94.44–106.4%) shown in the table 3.

Precision

The precision of the analytical method was determined by measuring the fixed concentration of the drug solution for 6 times within the Beer’s range and absorbance was found. The results of amikacin were given in the table 4-7.

Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ)

The LOD and LOQ for amikacin sulfate were determined using calibration standards. The LOD and LOQ were calculated as 3.3* standard deviation/slope and 10* standard deviation/slope respectively.

Robustness and ruggedness

To determine the robustness of the method, reaction time and reagent concentrations were slightly altered with optimum values in spectrophotometry. To check the ruggedness, the analysis was done by four different analysts and on three different spectrophotometers using the same analyst. The robust data are expressed in % RSD. The results of amikacin were in table 8 and 9.

Fig. 2: Chemical reaction between amikacin and reagent

Sandell’s sensitivity

The serial dilutions of 20-100µg/ml solutions absorbance were taken and the sensitivity is calculated using the formula: Sandell’s Sensitivity (л) = Conc. (µg/100 ml) x 0.001/D1 value. The results were given in the table 10.

Selection of chloranillic acid reagent was based on the higher reactivity due to its stronger chromophore group in its structure when compared to other reagents. It enables its use for colourimetric determination of several amino groups.

The drug shows maximum absorption at 524 nm with a linearity range of 20-100 µg/ml. The method is also validated for precision, accuracy, LOD, LOQ. The precision of the method was found to be 1.78µg/ml,1.76 µg/ml and1.38 µg/ml.

The percentage recovery was ranging from 94.44% to 106.94%. And the LOD and LOQ were found to be 6.49 µg/ml and 19.68 µg/ml respectively. These data’s confirms the method is very sensitive and effectively used for quantification of Amikacin sulfate.

Fig. 3: Linearity plot for amikacin sulfate

Fig. 4: Overlay absorption spectra of amikacin sulphate

Table 1: Optical parameters of the method

Parameters Method
ƛmax 524 nm
Beers law limits µg/ml 20-100
Regression equation y=mx+c Y=0.0021x-0.0075
Slope,m 0.0021
Intercept,c -0.0075
LOD, µg/ml 6.49
LOQ, µg/ml 19.68
Correlation coefficient(r2) 0.9803
Sandell’s Sensitivity, µg/cm2/0.001 A. U. 0.23
Molar absorpitivity, cm-1M-1 0.122*104

Table 2: Assay procedures

Brand name Available form Label claim Amount found Assay
MIKACIN IM injection 250 mg/ml 248.97 mg/ml 99.58

Table: 3 Accuracy/% recovery

Level of recovery Amount of formulation (µg/ml) Amount of pure drug (µg/ml) Total amount of drug (µg/ml) Absorbance Difference % recovery Mean
50 40 20 60 0.113 0.073 101.39 100.46
40 20 60 0.111 0.071 98.61
40 20 60 0.113 0.073 101.39
100 40 40 80 0.143 0.071 98.61 100.92
40 40 80 0.149 0.077 106.94
40 40 80 0.142 0.07 97.22
150 40 60 100 0.189 0.075 104.17 99.07
40 60 100 0.182 0.068 94.44
40 60 100 0.185 0.071 98.61

Table 4: Method precision (intraday)

Concentration µg/ml Absorbance Concentration µg/ml Absorbance Concentration µg/ml Absorbance
20 0.0401 60 0.11 100 0.203
0.0409 0.109 0.201
0.042 0.112 0.21
0.0405 0.107 0.209
0.0409 0.11 0.201
0.04 0.106 0.203
Avg 0.0407 Avg 0.109 Avg 0.2045
SD 0.0006 SD 0.002 SD 0.003
% RSD 1.63 %RSD 1.83 %RSD 1.77

Avg: Average SD: Standard Deviation RSD: Relative Standard Deviation

Table 5: Method precision (interday)

Concentration µg/ml Absorbance Concentration µg/ml Absorbance Concentration µg/ml Absorbance
20 0.041 60 0.109 100 0.209
0.04 0.11 0.21
0.042 0.113 0.205
0.04 0.112 0.203
0.041 0.11 0.207
0.04 0.115 0.213
Avg 0.0406 Avg 0.115 Avg 0.2078
SD 0.0007 SD 0.002 SD 0.003
%RSD 1.83 %RSD 1.84 %RSD 1.58

Avg: Average SD: Standard Deviation RSD: Relative Standard Deviation

Table 6: System precision (intraday)

Concentration µg/ml Absorbance Concentration µg/ml Absorbance Concentration µg/ml Absorbance
20 0.04 60 0.109 100 0.199
0.04 0.11 0.203
0.042 0.114 0.201
0.04 0.112 0.2
0.04 0.109 0.197
0.0401 0.113 0.203
Avg 0.0405 Avg 0.111 Avg 0.2005
SD 0.0007 SD 0.001 SD 0.002
%RSD 1.86 %RSD 1.75 %RSD 1.06

Avg: Average SD: Standard Deviation RSD: Relative Standard Deviation

Table 7: System precision (interday)

Concentration µg/ml Absorbance Concentration µg/ml Absorbance Concentration µg/ml Absorbance
20 0.0401 60 0.112 100 0.201
0.04 0.114 0.199
0.0403 0.109 0.203
0.042 0.11 0.2
0.0399 0.109 0.201
0.0401 0.11 0.206
Avg 0.0405 Avg 0.11 Avg 0.201
SD 0.0007 SD 0.001 SD 0.002
%RSD 1.82 %RSD 1.62 %RSD 1.13

Avg: Average SD: Standard Deviation RSD: Relative Standard Deviation

Table 8: Robustness data of the developed method

Wavelength (nm) Concentration µg/ml Absorbance Wavelength (nm) Concentration µg/ml Absorbance
523 60 0.114 525 60 0.114
60 0.112 60 0.111
60 0.113 60 0.113
Avg 0.113 Avg 0.112
St Dev 0.001 St Dev 0.001
%RSD 0.88 %RSD 1.35

Table 9: Ruggedness of the developed method

Concentration µg/ml Linearity absorbance Change in instrument absorbance Mean SD %RSD
0 0 0 0 0 0
20 0.04 0.041 0.04 0.0007 1.74
40 0.072 0.074 0.073 0.001 1.94
60 0.114 0.112 0.113 0.001 1.25
80 0.179 0.176 0.177 0.002 1.98
100 0.201 0.205 0.203 0.003 1.39

SD: Standard Deviation RSD: Relative Standard Deviation

Table 10: Sandell’s sensitivity

S. No. Concentration(µg/ml) Absorbance Sensitivity Mean sensitivity
1 20 0.04 0.5 0.23
2 40 0.072 0.278
3 60 0.114 0.175
4 80 0.179 0.112
5 100 0.201 0.010

CONCLUSION

The developed spectrophotometric method was easy, responsive and authentic with good precision and accuracy. The procedure did not involve any critical steps; hence it can be used routinely for determination of amikacin in pure and in the marketed formulation.

AUTHORS CONTRIBUTIONS

All the author have contributed equally

CONFLICT OF INTERESTS

Declared none

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About this article

Title

SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF AMIKACIN IN PURE AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM

Keywords

Amikacin, Analytical method development, ICH guidelines, Pharmaceutical dosage, Spectrophotometric.

DOI

10.22159/ijcpr.2018v10i1.24703

Date

15-01-2018

Additional Links

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Journal

International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research
Vol 10, Issue 1 (Jan-Feb), 2018 Page: 38-42

Online ISSN

0975-7066

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Authors & Affiliations

Surya Teja G.
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, JSS College of Pharmacy, Jagadguru Sri Shivarathreeshwara University, Mysore 570015, Karnataka, India

Gurupadayya B. M.
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, JSS College of Pharmacy, Jagadguru Sri Shivarathreeshwara University, Mysore 570015, Karnataka, India
India

Venkata Sairam K.
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, JSS College of Pharmacy, Jagadguru Sri Shivarathreeshwara University, Mysore 570015, Karnataka, India


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