Int J Curr Pharm Res, Vol 10, Issue 2, 13-16Review Article

MORINGA OLEIFERA AS A PHARMACEUTICAL EXCIPIENT

UPHADEK B.*, SHINKAR D. M., PATIL P. B., SAUDAGAR R. B.

Department of Pharmaceutics, R. G. Sapkal College of Pharmacy, Anjaneri 422213, Nasik, Maharashtra, India
Email: uphadekavita@gmail.com

Received: 26 Dec 2017, Revised and Accepted: 05 Feb 2018


ABSTRACT

Plant gums and mucilages are being used due to their abundance in nature, safety and economy. Additives play an important role in pharmaceutical preparations like tablet, lotions, suspensions, syrups and ointments. Recent trends towards the use of the natural and nontoxic products which demand the replacement of synthetic excipients with natural ones. Moringaoleifera gum has good mucoadhesive polymer, disintegrating agent and binder. Moringa Oleiferagum show that it has high potential for industrial application especially in the food, textile and pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: Gums, Mucilages, Additives, Mucoadhesive, Moringa Oleifera


INTRODUCTION [1-3]

Nowdays Most of Researchers are trying to introduce new excipients for drug formulations to exhibit varied functions. The popularity of new excipient research is growing tremendously over the last few decades due to increasing demand for safe, economical and functionally reliable substitutes for the existing synthetic ones. There is almost all therapeutic formulations used for humans and others include excipients. Pharmaceutical excipients can be regarded as totally inert or inactive substance within the formulation, but are used to convert Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients into dosage forms suitable for administration to patient.

MoringaoleiferaLam belongs to family Moringaceae. It is also known as Drumstick in English, Saragvo in Gujarati, Soanj-na in Hindi, Sajna in Bengali, Nugge in Kannada, Sigru in Malyalam, Shevga in Marathi, Shobhanjana in Sanskrit and Munaga in Telugu. Moringa powder is sparingly soluble in water but swells in contact with water giving a highly viscous solution. In view of the easy availability of the plant, the ex-udates from the stem of the tree. The stem of the tree exudes a gum which is initially white in colour but changes to reddish brown to brownish black on exposure.

Moringa OleiferaLam. (Moringaceae) is one of the 14 species of the family moringaceae, native to India, Africa, Arabia, Southeast Asia, South America, and the Pacific and Caribbean Islands. Because M. oleiferahas been seen in many tropic and sub-tropic regions worldwide. The plant is referred to by a number of names such as horseradish tree, drumstick tree, ben oil tree, miracle tree, and “Mother’s BestFriend”. This plant grown and widely cultivated in the northern part of Nigeria and many countries in tropical Africa. Moeingaoleiferacanbe grown in a variety of soil conditions preferring well-drained sandy or loamy soilthat is slightly alkaline. Almost every part of M. oleiferacan be used for food and as aforage for livestock.

Moringa tree was introduced to Africa from India at the turn of the twentieth century where it was to be used as a health supplement. It is traditionally used for the treatment of a number of ailments including as fomentation to relieve spasm, diarrhea, as diuretic and stimulant in paralytic affliction, epilepsy ad hysteria. Study shows that, for centuriespeople in many countries have used Moringa leaves as traditional medicine forcommon ailments.

Nutritional Importance [3-5]

Moringa trees are very useful to combat malnutrition, especially among infants and nursing mothers. Three non-governmental organizations in particular-trees for Life, Church World Service and Educational Concerns for Hunger Organization-have advocated Moringaas “natural nutrition for the tropics” Drumstick Leaves can be eaten fresh, cooked, or stored as dried powder for many months without refrigeration, and reportedly without loss of nutritional value. Moringais especially promising as a food source in the tropics because the tree is in full leafat the end of the dry season when other foods are typically scarce. A large number of reports on the nutritional qualities of Moringanow exist in both the scientific and the popularliterature. Moringa Oleiferacontain Vitamin A, calcium, iron, vitamin C and potassium respectively more than carrots, milk, spinach, oranges, and bananas. That the protein quality of Moringaleaves rivals that of milk and eggs. The leaves are rich in ironand therefore highly recommended for expectant mothers. Since allessential amino acids are present Moringa may be rightly called acomplete food for total nutrition.

Fig. 1: Fruit of moringaoleifera

Pharmacological importance [3-11]

Analgesic activity

The experimental studies using hot plate and tail immersion method have shown thatalcoholic extract of leaves and seeds of Moringa oleifera possess marked analgesic activity and found to be equipotent to standard drug.

Anti-inflammatory activity

Poultice of leaves is beneficial in glandular swellings. The root extract exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in Carrageen induced rat paw edema.

Antipyretic activity

The antipyretic activity of ethanolic, petroleum ether, solvent ether and ethyl acetate extracts of seeds of moringa was screened using yeast induced hyperpyrexia method.

Wound healing properties

Three wound models wiz excision wound, incision wound and dead space wound were selected for assessing wound healing activity of ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of leaves. Ethanolicand Ethyl acetate extracts (10% w/w extract in the form of ointment) showed significant wound healing activity that is comparable with the standard vicco turmeric cream, Phytosterols and phenolic compounds present in these extracts promote the wound healing activity.

Table 1: The nutrient composition of leaves, leaf powder, seeds and pods [1]

Nutrients Fresh leaves Dry leaves Leaf powder Seed Pods
Calories (cal) 92 329 205 - 25
Protein (g) 6.7 29.4 27.1 35.97 2.5
Fat (g) 1.7 5.2 2.3 38.67 0.1
Carbohydrate (g) 12.5 41.2 38.2 8.67 3.7
Fibre (g) 0.9 12.5 19.2 2.87 4.8
Vitamin B1 (mg) 0.06 2.02 2.64 0.05 0.05
Vitamin B2 (mg) 0.05 21.3 20.5 0.06 0.07
Vitamin B3 (mg) 0.8 7.6 8.2 0.2 0.2
Vitamin C (mg) 220 15.8 17.3 4.5 120
Vitamin E (mg) 448 10.8 113 751.67 -
Calcium (mg) 440 2185 2003 45 30
Magnesium (mg) 42 448 368 635 24
Phosphorus (mg) 70 252 204 75 110
Potassium (mg) 259 1236 1324 - 259
Copper (mg) 0.07 0.49 0.57 5.20 3.1
Iron (mg) 0.85 25.6 28.2 - 5.3

All values are in 100 g per plant material

Anti-asthmatic activity

A study was carried out to investigate the efficacy and safety of seed kernels of Moringaoleiferain the treatment of bronchial asthma. The results showed an appreciable decrease in severity of symptoms of asthma and also simultaneous improvement in respiratory tract functions.

Antidiabetic activity

An extract from the Moringaleaves has been shown to be effective in lowering blood sugarlevels within 3 h ingestion, though less effectively than the standard hypoglycaemic drug.

Hepatoprotective activity

The methanolic and chloroform extracts of leaves of Moringaoleiferahave shownvery significant hepatoprotection against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats in reducingserum total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, and serum glutamicoxaloacetic transaminase levels. Moringa roots have been reported to possess hepatoprotective activity. The aqueous and alcoholic extracts from Moringa flowers were also found as hepatoprotective effect, due to thepresence of quercetin, a well-known flavonoid.

Antitumor and anticancer activity

Some isolated bioactive compounds from the seeds of Moringaoleiferawere tested for antitumor promoting activity using 7, 12-dimethylbenzanthracene as initiator and 12-O-tetra-decanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate as tumour promoter. Niazimicin, a thiocarbamate from the leaves ofMoringaoleiferawas found to be a potent chemo preventive agent in chemical carcinogenesis. The seedextracts have also been found to be effective on hepatic carcinogen metabolizing enzymes, antioxidant parameters and skin papilloma genesis in mice. A seed ointment had similar effect to neomycin against Staphylococcus aureuspyodermain mice. It has been found that niazimicin exhibits inhibition of tumourpromoter induced Epstein-Barr virus activation.

Antimicrobial activity

Moringaroots are reported to be rich powerful antibacterial and antifungal effects. Theroot extract also showed antimicrobial property due to the presence of 4 alpha-L-rhamnosyloxybenzyl isothiocyanate. An aqueous extract made from seeds was found to be effective against P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and E. coli. An extract from leaves was found to beeffective at inhibiting the growth of fungi Basidiobolushaptosporus, B. ranarums and Spirochinfound in root,is effective against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. M. oleiferaroot contains Anthonine wasfound highly toxic to the cholera bacterium. The antimicrobial activity of different Moringaoleiferaseedsextracts were tested against Scenedesmusobliquus(green algae), Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillussterothermophilus(bacterial strains) and Herpes Simplex virus type 1 (HSV 1) and Polio virus type 1 (sabinvaccine). Although, P. aeruginosawas more resistant to all M. oleifera extracts, B. sterothermophiluswas moresensitive than other organisms to all extracts. The effect of aqueous methanolic extract and fixed oil on HSV1was highly similar, 52.22% and 45.20%.

Antihypertensive, diuretic and cholesterol lowering activities

Moringa leaf juice is known to have astabilizing effect on blood pressure. Mustard oil glycosides and thiocarbamate glycosides have beenisolated from Moringaleaves which were found to be responsible for the blood pressure lowering effect. Moringaroots, leaves, flowers, gum and the aqueous infusion of seeds have been found to possess diureticactivity. Moringa leaves extract(crude) shows significant cholesterol lowering action in the bloodserum of high fat diet fed rats which might be attributed to the presence of a bioactive phytoconstituent i.e. β-sitosterol.

Antispasmodic, Antiulcer and Anthelmintic activities

Moringaroots and leaves have been reported topossess antispasmodic activity. This activity of leaves has been attributed to the presence of 4 alpha-Lrhamnosyloxy benzyl-o-methyl thiocarbamate possibly through calcium channel blocker. The spasmolyticactivity exhibited by different constituents provides pharmacological basis for traditional uses of this plant ingastrointestinal motility disorder. The methanolic extract of moringawas found to possess significant protectiveactions in acetylsalicylic acid; serotonin and indomethacin induced gastric lesions in experimental rats. Asignificant enhancement of the healing process in acetic acid-induced chronic gastric lesions was also observedwith the extract-treated animals. The flower and leaves also are considered to be of high medicinal value with antihelmenticacivity.

In blindness and eye infections

Though there are many causes of blindness, Vitamin A deficiency causesimpaired dark adaption and night blindness. Eating Moringaleaves, pods and leaf powder which contain highproportion of Vitamin A can help to prevent night blindness and eye problems in children. Ingesting drumstickleaves (β-carotene and leutin) with oil helps in improving Vitamin A nutrition and perhaps delays the onset ofcataract. Also the juice can be instilled into eyes in cases of conjunctivitis.

Cardiac and circulatory stimulant

All parts of the tree are reported to be used as cardiac and circulatorystimulant. Moringinine acts on the sympathetic nervous system and acts as a cardiac stimulant.

Antioxidant activity

Antioxidant activity reported in oil from the dried seeds is higher than BHT (ButylatedHydroxy Toluene) and alpha-tocopherol. Aqueous methanol (80%) and ethanol (70%) extracts of freeze driedleaves showed radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. The drumstick leaves are found to be a greatsource of natural antioxidants.

Antifertility activity

The aqueous extract of root and bark at a dose of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, respectivelyshowed post-coital anti fertility effect in rat and also induced foetalresorption at late pregnancy. Anaqueous extract of Moringaoleiferaroots was investigated for its estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, progestational andanti-progestational activities. Doses up to 600 mg/kg of the extract orally failed to induce a deciduas responsein the traumatized uterus of ovariectomized rats.

Pharmaceutical application [2-3, 11-16]

Suspending agent

A comparative study of gums of Moringaoleifera and tracaganth was reported. Zinc oxide suspensions were prepared with gum of Moringaoleifera and tracaganth. Their sedimentation profile, redispersibility, degree of flocculation and rheological behaviour were compared. The results shows that the suspending properties of Moringaoleiferagum are comparable with that of gum tragacanth.

Surfactant behavior

A study on interfacial properties and fluorescence of a coagulating protein extracted from Moringaseeds and its interaction with sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) was carried out. The study reported that

a) The protein extracted from Moring seeds has significant surfactant behavior.

b) The coagulant protein interacts strongly with SDS and the protein might have specific binding sites for SDS.

c) There is formation of protein-SDS complex.

Film forming property

Studies reported that gum of M. oleiferahas enormous potential for use in the preparation of polymeric films as drug delivery systems.

As stabilizer

Plant phenolics have gained considerable interest in recent years for their potential effects against food related microorganisms. Phenolic extract obtained from the leaves of M. oleifera and M. orusindica showed stabilizing activity. In the present study effect of addition of phenolic extract from leaves of M. oleiferaand M. indicaon the shelf life of pineapple juice stored at 40 °C was investigated by monitoring the changes in titrableacidity and sensory parameters for 8 w. Results observed that the extracts of natural phenolics can be usedto improve the quality and safety of foods.

Cosmetic use

Various parts of Moringaoleifera have cosmetic value. Cognis Laboratories Serobiologics team developed Puricare TM and Purisoft TM, two active ingredients based on botanical peptides from the seeds of Moringaoleiferatree that purify hair and skin and offer protection against the effects of pollution. Moringaseed oil, known as Behen oil is widely used as a carrier oil in cosmetic preparations. The healing properties of Moringaoil were documented by ancient cultures. Moringaoil possesses exceptional oxidative stability whichmay explainwhy the Egyptians placed vases of Moringaoil in their tombs. It is high in oleic acid and similar incomposition to olive oil. Moringaoil is light and spreads easily on the skin. It is good oil for use in massage and aromatherapy applications. It can be used in body and hair care as a moisturizer and skin conditioner. Other usesinclude soap making and for use in cosmetic preparations such as lip balm and creams. Moringaoleiferabutter, a semisolid fraction of Moringaoil, is used in baby products to contribute a free radical resistant emollient with exceptionally long lasting skin soften.

Detoxification/water purification

Moringahas the ability to remove hazardous materials from water. After oilextraction of Moringaseeds the left press cake contains water soluble proteins that act as effective coagulantsfor water purification. The charged protein molecules can serveas nontoxic natural polypeptides to settlemineral particles and organics in the purification of drinking water, vegetable oil, depositing juice and beer. Moringaseeds showed similar coagulation effects to alum. It is also reported that a recombinant protein in theseed is able to flocculate gram positive and gram negative bacterial cells. Moringaseeds could be used as abiosorbant for the removal of cadmium from aqueous media. Thus water purifying attributes of Moringaseedsare as coagulant, microbial elimination and as a biosorbant.

Binder

In view of importance of binders in pharmaceuticals for the manufacture of tablets and capsules, gum extracted from the bark of Moringa Oleiferagum was evaluate its binding properties through assessment of various parameters essential for pharmaceutical formulation.

Starch

Starch is also one of the most widely used biomaterial in the food, textile, cosmetics, plastics, adhesives, paper and pharmaceutical industries. The diverseindustrial usage of starch is based on its availability at low cost, high calorific value and inherent excellent physicochemical properties. Theversatility of starch in industrial applications is clearly defined by its physicochemical properties; therefore, a thorough evaluation of the necessary parameters is important in elucidating its industrial uses. Moringa Oleiferastarch as a new starch feedstock for Industrial use which can reduce the burden on other starch sources such as cassava, corn, yam, potatoes and other complex carbohydrates. And also to provide an inherent nutritional benefits for various industrial products that use starch as one of the raw material.

Disintegrant

Moringaaleifera isolated gum powder can be effectively used as disintegrant. The disintegration time for natural gum was found to be less when comparedto synthetic gum tablet.

Future potential [18-20]

In coming decades, it is anticipated that natural polymers will be coming as additional derivatives for development of various novel drug delivery systems due to a number of actions such as coating agent, gel former, controlled-release matrix, in addition to inducing desirable properties such as mucoadhesion and permeation enhancement to improve oral bioavailability of a drug.

CONCLUSION

After survey of various literatures concluded that natural polymer like Moringaoleiferaplays a vital role inthe development of Novel drug delivery systems. So in future these polymers may be used widely by theresearcher for the development of NDDS because of its advantage over other synthetic polymer. We anticipate that more uses of natural polymer will be coming as additional derivatives are synthesized and newer formulations are developed. The natural polymers can serve a number of purposes, including as a coating agent, gel former, controlled-release matrix, in addition to inducing desirable properties, such as mucoadhesion and permeation enhancement to improve oral bioavailability of a drug.

AUTHORS CONTRIBUTIONS

All the author have contributed equally

CONFLICT OF INTERESTS

Declared none

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About this article

Title

MORINGA OLEIFERA AS A PHARMACEUTICAL EXCIPIENT

Keywords

Gums, Mucilages, Additives, Mucoadhesive, Moringa Oleifera

DOI

10.22159/ijcpr.2018v10i2.25883

Date

15-03-2018

Additional Links

Manuscript Submission

Journal

International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research
Vol 10, Issue 2 (Mar-Apr), 2018 Page: 13-16

Online ISSN

0975-7066

Authors & Affiliations

Uphadek B.
Department of Pharmaceutics, R. G. Sapkal College of Pharmacy, Anjaneri 422213, Nasik, Maharashtra, India

Shinkar D. M.
Department of Pharmaceutics, R. G. Sapkal College of Pharmacy, Anjaneri 422213, Nasik, Maharashtra, India

Patil P. B.
Department of Pharmaceutics, R. G. Sapkal College of Pharmacy, Anjaneri 422213, Nasik, Maharashtra, India

Saudagar R. B.
Department of Pharmaceutics, R. G. Sapkal College of Pharmacy, Anjaneri 422213, Nasik, Maharashtra, India


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