â€œSOLID AS SOLVENTâ€- NOVEL SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF NORFLOXACIN TABLETS USING PHENOL AS SOLVENT
Commonly used organic solvents for spectrophotometric analysis of water insoluble drugs include methanol, ethanol, chloroform, benzene, dichloromethane, dimethyl formamide, acetonitrile, ethyl acetate, toluene, carbon tetrachloride, acetone, hexane etc. The main drawbacks of organic solvents include high cost, toxicity and pollution. Organic solvents have innumerous adverse effects caused by single exposure like dermatitis, headache, drowsiness, nausea, eye irritation and long term exposure causes serious effects such as neurological disorders, chronic renal failure, liver damage, necrosis, mutagenesis disorder. They should be replaced by other eco-friendly alternative sources. The present investigation is an attempt to show that solids can also be wisely used to act as solvent precluding the use of organic solvents. In a separate study, author has attempted soxhelation using phenol as solvent. The vapours of boiling phenol got condensed in extraction chamber to effect the extraction of active constituents from powder of crude drugs. The main objective of the present study is to demonstrate the solvent action of solids. Solid excipients can nicely be employed as solubilizers in the development of pharmaceutical dosage forms in solution form of poorly soluble drugs (mixed solvency concept). Present study describes the application of solvent character of melted phenol (at 50-60Â°C) for spectroscopic estimation of norfloxacin tablets. Solubility of norfloxacin in distilled water is 0.88 mg/ml. More than 100 mg of nofloxacin dissolves in one gram of melted phenol (at 50-60Â°C). In the present investigation, melted phenol (at 50-60Â°C) was utilized to extract out (dissolve) the drug from powder of norfloxacin tablets. Distilled water was used for dilution purpose. Absorbances of standard solutions containing 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 Âµg/ml were noted at 324 nm against reagent blanks to obtain calibration curve. Proposed method is novel, economic, eco-friendly, rapid, free from toxicity of organic solvent, accurate and reproducible. Recovery studies and statistical data proved the accuracy, reproducibility and precision of the proposed method. The presence of tablet excipients and phenol did not interfere in the spectrophotometric estimation at 324 nm.
Keywords: Mixed-solvency concept, Norfloxacin, Phenol, Spectrophotometric analysis.
2. Maheshwari RK. Solubilization of ibuprofen by mixed solvency approach. Indian Pharm 2009;8(87):81-4.
3. Maheshwari RK. â€œMixed-solvencyâ€â€“A novel concept for solubilization of poorly water-soluble drugs. Delving J Tech Eng Sci 2009;1(1):39-43.
4. Maheshwari RK, Shilpkar R. Formulation development and evaluation of injection of poorly soluble drug using mixed solvency concept. Int J Pharm Biosci 2012;3(I):179-89.
5. Maheshwari RK, Upadhyay N, Jain J, Patani M, Mathuria KC. New spectrophotometric estimation of naproxen tablet formulation employing mixed solvency concept (at 331 nm). Int J Pharm Technol 2011;3(4):3618-23.
6. Soni LK, Solanki SS, Maheshwari RK. Solubilization of poorly water soluble drug using mixed solvency approach for aqueous injection. Br J Pharm Res 2014;4(5):549-68.
7. Maheshwari Y, Mishra DK, Mahajan SC, Maheshwari P, Maheshwari RK, Jain J. Novel pharmaceutical application of mixed solvency in the formulation development of syrups (liquid oral solutions) of poorly water-soluble drugs. Int J Pharm 2013;3(4):753-8.
8. Maheshwari RK, Gupta S, Gharia A, Garg SK, Shilpkar R. Simple eco-friendly spectrophotometric estimation of tinidazole tablets by application of mixed-solvency technique. Bull Pharm Res 2011;1(1):22-5.
9. Maheshwari RK, Rajagopalan R. Formulation and evaluation of paracetamol syrup made by mixed-solvency concept. Der Pharm Lett 2012;4(1):170-4.
10. Maheshwari RK, Rajagopalan R. Formulation and evaluation of tinidazole syrup made by mixed-solvency concept. Der Pharm Lett 2011;3(6):266-71.
11. Bhawsar N, Maheshwari RK, Ansari A, Saktawat Y. New spectrophotometric estimation of gatifloxacin in the tablets using mixed solvency approach. Int J Pharm Sci 2011;2(2):270-4.
12. Maheshwari RK, Karawande VU. Application of novel concept of mixed solvency in the design and development of floating microspheres of furosemide. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013;15:167-95.
13. Maheshwari RK, Upadhyay N, Jain J, Patani M, Pandey R. New spectrophotometric analysis of gatifloxacin tablets utilizing mixed solvency concept (at 288 nm). Der Pharm Lett 2012;4(1):1-4.
14. Agrawal A, Maheshwari RK. Formulation development and evaluation of in situ nasal gel of poorly water soluble drug using mixed solvency concept. Asian J Pharm 2011;5(3);131-40.
15. Sreegiriprasad B, Gupta VRM, Devanna N, Ramadevi M, Vishnuvarethan rao G. Mixed solvency concept: a promising tool to enhance solubility of poorly soluble drug aceclofenac. Int J Pharm Chem Biol Sci 2012;3:338-42.
16. Prashant B, Rawat S, Mahajan YY, Galgatte UC, Maheshwari RK. Formulation development and evaluation of aqueous injection of poorly soluble drug made by novel application of mixed solvency concept. Int J Drug Delivery 2013;2:152-66.
17. Chandna C, Maheshwari RK. Mixed solvency concept in reducing surfactant concentration of self emulsifying drug delivery systems of candesartan cilexetil using D-optimal mixture design. Asian J Pharm 2013;5:83-91.
18. Maheshwari RK. Potentiation of solvent character by mixed solvency concept: a novel concept of solubilization. J Pharm Res 2010;3(2):411-3.
19. Vijayranga G, Deveswaran R, Bharath S, Basavraj BV, Madhavan V. Development of an analytical method for spectrophotometric estimation of ketoprofen using mixed solvency approach. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2012;4:1053-6.