THE EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE DURATION TO ELECTRONIC CIGARETTE SMOKE ON DIFFERENCES IN SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE AND MALONDIALDEHYDE IN BLOOD OF WISTAR RATS

  • RIVAN VIRLANDO SURYADINATA Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Surabaya (UBAYA), Surabaya
  • BAMBANG WIRJATMADI Faculty of Public Health, Airlangga University, Surabaya
  • MERRYANA ADRIANI Faculty of Public Health, Airlangga University, Surabaya
  • SRI SUMARMI Faculty of Public Health, Airlangga University, Surabaya

Abstract

Objective: Exposure to electronic cigarette smoke causes an increase of free radicals. Physiologically, the body produces antioxidant superoxide dismutase to neutralize the free radicals. However, an excessive increase of the free radicals will result in an imbalance between the amount of free radicals and antioxidants. The free radicals in the body can trigger lipid peroxidation so that it will result in oxidative stress causing cell damage. Malondialdehyde increase is a marker of oxidative stress in the body. The aim of this research is to understand the changes and the relationship between levels of superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde in the blood due to exposure to electronic cigarette smoke.


Methods: This research is an experimental study using male Wistar rats as experimental animal models. In the study, the exposure to electronic cigarette smoke with different duration of administration was carried out. Next, blood samples were taken to check the levels of superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde.


Results: The results showed a difference in antioxidant levels between antioxidant Superoxide Dismutase and malondialdehyde (p<0.05). Meanwhile the relationship between the two groups showed a strong (r = 0.893) and significant (p = 0.000) relationship.


Conclusion: The exposure to electronic cigarette smoke can reduce the level of antioxidant superoxide dismutase and increase the level of malondialdehyde in blood. In addition, changes in the levels of antioxidant superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde had a strong and significant relationship.

Keywords: Superoxide Dismutase, E-Cigarette, Malondialdehyde, Free Radical

References

1. EP Perikleous, P Steiropoulos, E Paraskakis, TC Constantinidis, E Nena. E-cigarette use among adolescents: an overview of the literature and future perspectives. Front Public Heal 2018;6:86.
2. A Jamal. Tobacco use among middle and high school in the students-United States, 2011–2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017;66:597–603.
3. BK Ambrose. Perceptions of the relative harm of cigarettes and e-cigarettes among U. S. Youth. Am J Prev Med 2014;47:S53–S60.
4. Y Cheung. Public support for electronic cigarette regulation in hong kong: a population-based cross-sectional study. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017;14:709.
5. CA Lerner. Vapors produced by electronic cigarettes and e-juices with flavorings induce toxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response in lung epithelial cells and in mouse lung. PLoS One 2015;10:e0116732.
6. B Reidel. E-cigarette use causes a unique innate immune response in the lung, involving increased neutrophilic activation and altered mucin secretion. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2018;197:492–501.
7. RV Suryadinata, B Wirjatmadi, M Adriani. Pengaruh perubahan hiperplasia sel goblet selama 28 hari paparan asap rokok dengan pemberian antioksidan superoxide dismutase. Indones J Public Heal 2017;11:60.
8. H Younus. Therapeutic potentials of superoxide dismutase. Int J Health Sci (Qassim) 2018;12:88–93.
9. R Virlando Suryadinata. Pengaruh radikal bebas terhadap proses inflamasi pada penyakit paru obstruktif kronis (PPOK) effect of free radicals on the inflammatory process in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Am Nutr 2018;2:317–24.
10. RV Suryadinata, B Wirjatmadi, M Adriani. Efektivitas penurunan malondialdehyde dengan kombinasi suplemen antioksidan superoxide dismutase melon dan gliadin akibat paparan rokok. Glob Med Helath Commun 2017;5:79–83.
11. N Panth, KR Paudel, K Parajuli. Reactive oxygen species: a key hallmark of cardiovascular disease. Adv Med 2016:1–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9152732.
12. CI Vardavas, N Anagnostopoulos, M Kougias, V Evangelopoulou, GN Connolly, PK Behrakis. Short-term pulmonary effects of using an electronic cigarette. Chest 2012;141:1400–6.
13. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive. 2018 global strategy for prevention, diagnosis and management of COPD. Glob Obstr Lung Dis 2018. Available from: http://www.goldcopd.org. [Last accessed on 10 Jan 2019].
14. PII Indraswari, A Lorensia, RV Suryadinata. Analysis effect of nutrition intake on lung function of an active smoker and non-smoker. J Kesehat Masy 2018;14:247–53.
15. G Kamceva, Z Arsova Sarafinovska, T Ruskovska, M Zdravkovska, L Kamceva-Panova, E Stikova. Cigarette smoking and oxidative stress in patients with coronary artery disease. Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2016;4:636.
16. JA Groner. Oxidative stress in youth and adolescents with elevated body mass index exposed to secondhand smoke. Nicotine Tob Res 2016;18:1622–7.
17. Y Li. Cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary inflammation and autophagy are attenuated in Ephx2-deficient mice. Inflammation 2017;40:497–510.
18. R Anderson, PWA Meyer, MMTM Ally, M Tikly. Smoking and air pollution as pro-inflammatory triggers for the development of rheumatoid arthritis. Nicotine Tob Res 2016;18:1556–65.
19. SR Pratiwi, A Lorensia, RV Suryadinata. Asupan vitamin c dan e dengan SQ-FFQ terhadap fungsi paru perokok dan non-perokok. Media Kesehat Masy Indones 2018;14:101.
20. RV Suryadinata, B Wirjatmadi, M Adriani, S Sumarmi. Effects of knowledge of vitamin D on attitudes toward sun exposure among middle-aged and elderly Indonesian adults. Indian J Public Heal Res Dev 2018;9:1692-6.
21. M Hua, P Talbot. Potential health effects of electronic cigarettes: a systematic review of case reports. Prev Med Reports 2016;4:169–78.
22. BA Majeed. Changing perceptions of harm of e-cigarettes among U. S. Adults, 2012–2015. Am J Prev Med 2017;52:331–8.
Statistics
76 Views | 84 Downloads
How to Cite
SURYADINATA, R. V., B. WIRJATMADI, M. ADRIANI, and S. SUMARMI. “THE EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE DURATION TO ELECTRONIC CIGARETTE SMOKE ON DIFFERENCES IN SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE AND MALONDIALDEHYDE IN BLOOD OF WISTAR RATS”. International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research, Vol. 11, no. 3, May 2019, pp. 13-16, doi:10.22159/ijcpr.2019v11i3.34084.
Section
Original Article(s)