• EMAN HUSSAIN ELMUBARAK Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Gezira, Wad Madani, Sudan
  • ZUHEIR ABDELRAHMAN OSMAN Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan
  • MOHAMMED ABDELRAHMAN Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Gezira, Wad Madani, Sudan


Objective: The objective of the present study was to improve the aqueous solubility and dissolution characteristics of the loop diuretic furosemide (FUR); a class IV drug in the Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) using solid dispersion technique.

Methods: Solvent evaporation and kneading methods were used to produce solid dispersions of FUR in different ratios with the hydrophilic carrier polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30 (PVP-K30). The prepared solid dispersions were evaluated in terms of solubility study, percentage yield, drug content and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study (FT-IR). Tablets containing the optimized formula of solid dispersions ( were formulated and their dissolution characteristics were compared with commercial furosemide tablets.

Results: The prepared solid dispersions showed an increase in aqueous solubility, especially those formulated in a 1:2 drug: carrier ratio using solvent evaporation method ( it showed a four-fold increase in solubility compared to the parent drug. The absence of drug-carrier chemical interactions that could affect the dissolution was proved by FT-IR. Solid dispersion tablets exhibited a better dissolution profile in simulated gastric fluid pH 1.2 at 37°C ± 0.5 than the commercial FUR tablets in terms of mean dissolution time (8.44 min) and dissolution efficiency in 30 min (42.54%). Both FUR solid dispersions and commercial tablets followed Weibull and Krosmeyer models as the two best models of drug release kinetics proving that they were immediate release.

Conclusion: According to the results obtained in this study, solid dispersion techniques could be successfully used for the enhancement of aqueous solubility and dissolution rate of FUR.

Keywords: Furosemide, Solid dispersion, Polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30 (PVP-K30), Solvent evaporation, Kneading, Dissolution enhancement


1. Fridgeirsdottir G, Harris R, Fischer P, Roberts C. Support tools in formulation development for poorly soluble drugs. J Pharm Sci 2016;105:2260-9.
2. Savjani K, Gajjar A, Savjani J. Drug solubility: importance and enhancement techniques. ISRN Pharm 2012;2012:1-10.
3. Yadav B, Tanwar Y. Development, characterization and in vitro evaluation of flurbiprofen solid dispersions using polyethylene glycols as carrier. J Appl Pharm 2016;6:60-6.
4. Frizon F, Josimar de Oliveira E, Maria D, Lina M, Maldonado M. Dissolution rate enhancement of loratadine in polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30 solid dispersions by solvent methods. Powder Technol 2013;235:532-9.
5. Sekiguchi K, Obi N. Studies on the absorption of the eutectic mixture. I. a comparison of the behavior of a eutectic mixture of sulfathiazole and that of ordinary sulfathiazole in man. Chem Pharm Bull 1961;9:866-72.
6. Sridhar I, Doshi A, Joshi B, Wankhede V, Doshi J. Solid dispersions an approach to enhance solubility of poorly water-soluble drug. J Sci Innovative Res 2013;2:685-94.
7. Liu Y, Wang T, Ding W, Dong C, Wang X, Chen J, et al. Dissolution and oral bioavailability enhancement of praziquantel by solid dispersions. Drug Delivery Transl Res 2018;8:580-90.
8. Nikghalb L, Singh G, Singh G, Kahkeshan K. Solid dispersion: methods and polymers to increase the solubility of poorly soluble drugs. J Appl Pharm 2012;2:170-5.
9. Santos L, Soaresb M, Albuquerquea C, Silvaa E, Carneiro A, Ferreira D, et al. Solid dispersion of efavirenz in PVP K-30 by conventional solvent and kneading methods. Carbohydr Polym 2014;104:166-74.
10. Dewan I, Hossain M, Islam S. Formulation and evaluation of solid dispersions of carvedilol, a poorly water-soluble drug by using different polymers. Int J Res Pharm Chem 2012;2:585-93.
11. De Caro V, Ajovalasit A, Sutera F, Sabatino M, Dispenza C, Murgia D. Development and characterization of an amorphous solid dispersion of furosemide in the form of a sublingual bioadhesive film to enhance bioavailability. Pharmaceutics 2017;9:22.
12. Soni L, Ansari M, Thakre N, Singh A, Bhowmick M, Rathi J. Development and in vitro evaluation of furosemide solid dispersion using different water-soluble carriers. Int J Res Dev Pharm 2017;6:2571-5.
13. Chaulang G, Patil K, Ghodke D, Khan S, Yeole P. Preparation and characterization of solid dispersion tablet of furosemide with crospovidone. Res J Pharm Technol 2008;1:386-9.
14. Mangal G, Gadhave M. Eenhancement of solubility and dissolution rate of furosemide by ternary solid dispersion technique. Int J Adv Pharm 2016;5:140-50.
15. Begum SA, Madhuri V, Padmalath K. Design and evaluation of fast dissolving tablets of roflumilast solid dispersions. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2019;10:599-611.
16. Celik B, Ozdemir S, Barla Demirkoz A, Uner M. Optimization of piribedil mucoadhesive tablets for efficient therapy of Parkinson’s disease. Physical characterization and ex vivo drug permeation through the buccal mucosa. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2017;43:1836-45.
17. Uddin M, Al Mamun A, Tasnu T, Asaduzzaman M. In-process and finished products quality control tests for pharmaceutical tablets according to Pharmacopoeias. J Chem Pharm Res 2015;7:180-5.
18. Siahi-Shadbad M, Ghanbarzadeh S, Barzegar-Jalali M, Valizadeh H, Taherpoor A, Mohammadi G, et al. Development and characterization of solid dispersion for dissolution improvement of furosemide by cogrinding method. Adv Pharm Bull 2014;4:391-9.
19. Khan KA, Rhode CT. Effect of compaction pressure on the dissolution efficiency of some direct compression systems. Pharm Acta Helv 1972;47:594-607.
20. Moore JW, Flanner HH. Mathematical comparison of dissolution profiles. Pharm Technol 1996;20:64-74.
21. Patel R, Patel D, Bhimani D, Patel J. Physicochemical characterization and dissolution study of solid dispersions of furosemide with polyethylene glycol 6000 and polyvinylpyrrolidone K30. Dissolut Technol 2008;17-25.
22. Zhang Y, Huo M, Zhou J, Zou A, Li W, Yao C, et al. DDSolver an add-in program for modeling and comparison of drug dissolution profiles. AAPS J 2010;12:263-71.
23. Food and Drug Administration. Guidance for industry, testing of immediate-release solid oral dosage forms. U. S. Department of health and human services, center for drug evaluation and research (CDER). U. S. Government Printing Of?ce: Washington DC; 1997.
24. Démuth B, Nagy Z, Balogh A, Vigh T, Marosi G, Verreck G, et al. Downstream processing of polymer-based amorphous solid dispersions to generate tablet formulations. Int J Pharm 2015;486:1-19.
25. Meenakshi, Khan A. Formulation and evaluation of solid dispersion of furosemide in polyvinyl pyrollidone K 30. Int J Chemtech Res 2017;10:160-71.
26. Chaulang G, Patel P, Hardikar S, Kelkar M, Bhosale A, Bhise S. Formulation and evaluation of solid dispersions of furosemide in sodium starch glycolate. Trop J Pharm Res 2009;8:43-51.
27. Akbuga J, Gürsoy A, Yetimoglu F. Preparation and properties of tablets prepared from furosemide-PVP solid dispersion systems. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 1988;14:2091-108.
28. Vasconcelos T, Sarmento B, Costa P. Solid dispersions as strategy to improve oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Drug Discovery Today 2007;12:1068-75.
29. Leuner C, Dressman J. Improving drug solubility for oral delivery using solid dispersions. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2000;50:47-60.
30 Views | 38 Downloads
How to Cite
ELMUBARAK, E. H., Z. A. OSMAN, and M. ABDELRAHMAN. “FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SOLID DISPERSION TABLETS OF FUROSEMIDE USING POLYVINYLPYRROLIDONE K-30”. International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research, Vol. 13, no. 2, Mar. 2021, pp. 43-50, doi:10.22159/ijcpr.2021v13i2.41554.
Original Article(s)