PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL ASSESSMENT OF PLUCHEA INDICA (L.) LESS EXTRACT AS AN ACTIVE INGREDIENT IN NATURAL LOTION BAR
Keywords:Pluchea indica, Phytochemical compounds, Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, Extraction solvents, Natural lotion bar
Objective: To screen phytochemical compounds and study antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Pluchea indica (L.) Less (PI) leaves extracts for assessment the moisturizing lotion bar formulation containing it’s as a bioactive ingredient.
Methods: PI leaves were extracted in different solvents. Crude extracts were screened phytochemical compounds and evaluated antioxidant and antimicrobial activities before formulating to antibacterial moisturizing lotion bar.
Results: 95% ethanolic extract displayed high antioxidant activities. DPPH radical scavenging capacity with IC50 was 6.80±0.04 mg/ml (61.37±0.41%) and the ferric reducing ability power was 381.20±0.10 mg AAE/100 gDW. Additionally, 95% ethanolic extract served as a broad spectrum bacteriostatic agents against gram-positive and gram-negative species with an inhibition zone of 6.50±0.00-46.67±0.58 mm. It also was simultaneously as a broad spectrum bactericidal agents (MIC and MBC value of 25-200 mg/ml) by broth micro-dilution method. The screened phytochemical constituents (saponins, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, and alkaloids) in PI leaves extract may be responsible for high biological activities. Thus, 95% ethanolic extract was the most appropriate bioactive ingredient for formulated the product development.
Conclusion: The developed moisturizing lotion bar with 0.0041% of 95% ethanolic extract was the most eligible formula that showed good appearance, odor, color, homogeneity, after feel and stability. This extract-containing lotion bar formulation achieved a high level of customer satisfaction by sensory evaluation and development of this specific formulation should be subject to further clinical investigation.
2. Wang J, Pei YH, Lin WH, Deng ZW, Qiao L. Chemical constituents from the stems and leaves of marine mangrove plant Pluchea indica (L.) less. Shenyang Yaoke Daxue Xuebao 2008;25:960-3.
3. Panda SK, Luyten W. Antiparasitic activity in asteraceae with special attention to ethnobotanical use by the tribes of Odisha, India. Parasite 2018;25:10-25.
4. Kongkiatpaiboon S, Chewchinda S, Vongsak B. Optimization of extraction method and HPLC analysis of six caffeoylquinic acids in Pluchea indica leaves from different provenances in Thailand. Revista Brasileira Farmacognosia 2018;28:145-50.
5. Ruan J, Li Z, Yan J, Huang P, Yu H, Han L, et al. Bioactive constituents from the aerial parts of Pluchea indica less. Molecules 2018;23:2104.
6. Noridayu AR, Hii YF, Faridah A, Khozirah S, Lajis N. Antioxidant and antiacetylcholinesterase activities of Pluchea indica less. Int Food Res J 2011;18:925-9.
7. Widyawati PS, Wijaya CH, Hardjosworo PS, Sajuthi D. Antioxidant activity of pluchea (Pluchea indica Less) leaves methanolic extract and its fractions. Agritech 2012;32:249-57.
8. Biswas R. Isolation, purification and characterization of four pure compounds from the root extract of Pluchea indica less and the potentiality of the root extract and the pure compounds for antimicrobial activity. Eur Bull Drug Res 2005;3:63-70.
9. Qiu YQ, Qi SH, Zhang S, Tian XP, Xiao ZH, Li MY, et al. Thiophene derivatives from the aerial part of Pluchea indica. Heterocycles 2008;75:1757-64.
10. Srisook K, Buapool D, Boonbai R, Panadda S, Charoensuk Y, Srisook E. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of hot water extract from Pluchea indica less. herbal tea. J Med Plants Res 2012;6:4077.
11. Goswami S, Debnath S, Karan S, Chatterjee TK. In vivo antitumor activity of phytochemical pitc-2 obtained from tissue cultured plant Pluchea indica on sarcoma-180 solid tumor mice model. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:211-8.
12. Cho JJ, Cho CL, Kao CL, Chen CM, Tseng CN, Lee YZ, et al. Crude aqueous extracts of Pluchea indica (L.) less. inhibit proliferation and migration of cancer cells through induction of p53-dependent cell death. BMC Complem Altern Med 2012;12:265.
13. Kao CL, Cho J, Lee YZ, Cheng YB, Chien CY, Hwang CF, et al. Ethanolic extracts of Pluchea indica induce apoptosis and antiproliferation effects in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. Molecules 2015;20:11508-23.
14. Widyawati PS, Budianta TDW, Gunawan DI, Wongso RS. Evaluation antidiabetic activity of various leaf extracts of Pluchea indica less. Int J Pharm Pharm Res 2015;7:597-603.
15. Pramanik KC, Bhattacharya P, Biswas R, Bandyopadhyay D, Mishra M, Chatterjee T. Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of leaf extract of Pluchea indica less. Orient Pharm Exp Med 2006;6:232-6.
16. Harborne JB. Phytochemical methods, a guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. London: Chapman and Hall; 1998. p. 182-90.
17. Singleton VL, Orthofer R, Lamuela Raventos RM. Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of folin-ciocalteu reagent. Methods Enzymol 1999;299:152-78.
18. Tinrat S, Singhapol C. Evaluation of antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Vernonia amygdalina leaf extracts as an auxiliary in natural hair shampoo. J Pharm Clin Res 2020;13:50-7.
19. Jayalakshmia B, Raveeshab KA, Muralic M, Amruthesh KN. Phytochemical, antibacterial and antioxidant studies on leaf extracts of Piper betle L. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:23-9.
20. Benzie IF, Strain JJ. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of antioxidant power: the FRAP assay. Anal Biochem 1996;239:70-6.
21. CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute). Methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobically; approved standard. 7th ed. Document M7-A7, Wayne, PA; 2006.
22. Indradi RB, Fidrianny I, Wirasutisna KR. DPPH scavenging activities and phytochemical content of four asteraceae plants. Int J Pharmacogn Phytochem Res 2017;9:755-9.
23. Syabana MA, Yuliana ND, Batubara R, Fardiaz D. Antidiabetic activity screening and nmr profile of vegetable and spices commonly consumed in Indonesia. Food Sci Tech 2020;1-11. https://doi.org/10.1590/fst.14120
24. Yuliani, Soemarno, Yanuwiadi B, Leksono AS. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of Pluchea indica Less leaves extracts from some altitude habitats. Int J ChemTech Res 2015;8:1618-25.
25. Vongsak B, Inson N, Jaisamut S. Effect of Pluchea indica extracts from different habitats and seasons on free radical scavenging capacity. Thai J Pharm Sci 2017;41 Suppl 1:169-72.
26. Cheung LM, Cheung PCK, Ooi VEC. Antioxidant activity and total phenolics of edible mushroom extracts. Food Chem 2003;81:249-55.
27. Isah T. Stress and defense responses in plant secondary metabolites production. Biol Res 2019;52:39.
28. Zlatic N, Jakovljevic D, Stankovic M. Temporal, plant part, and interpopulation variability of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Inula helenium L. Plants (Basel) 2019;8:179.
29. Yan SW, Asmah R. Comparison of total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of turmeric leaf, pandan leaf and torch ginger flower. Int Food Res J 2010;17:417-23.
30. Sittiwet C. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Pluchea indica aqueous extract: The potential for urinary tract infection treatment. J Pharm Toxicol 2009;4:87-90.
31. Vu TT, Kim H, Tran VK, Dang QL, Nguyen HT, Kim H, et al. In vitro antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants traditionally used in Vietnam against human pathogenic bacteria. BMC Comp Alternative Med 2016;16:32.
32. Nowotarska SW, Nowotarski KJ, Friedman M, Situ C. Effect of structure on the interactions between five natural antimicrobial compounds and phospholipids of bacterial cell membrane on model monolayers. Molecules 2014;19:7497-515.