HEDYCHIUM SPICATUM BUCH-HAM. (KUCHRI), A TREASURE HOUSE OF ESSENTIAL OILS
Keywords:Kuchri, Rasapanchak, Camphene, Pediculicidal, Anti-inflammatory
Medicinal plants have a very significant role in the health care system. They are served as the primary source of modern drugs. One of such important medicinal plant is Hedychium spicatum Buch-ham. which belongs to the Zingiberaceae family (ginger family). The plant is commonly known as the spiked ginger lily in English and Kuchri in Hindi and Shati in Sanskrit. It is a commercially valuable plant due to its rhizomes. This rhizomatous plant holds a significant place in Ayurveda due to its extraordinary disease-curing properties. It is mentioned as Shwasahara mahakashaya dravya in Ayurveda. It is used in many folk cultures around the world as a remedy against many diseases like diarrhoea, liver-related problems, pain, vomiting, stomachache, inflammation, nausea, headache, fever etc. It is a therapeutically important plant due to the presence of numerous important essential oils as major phytochemical constituents like 1,8-Cineole, camphene, sabinene, β-pinene, myrcene, α-phellandrene, etc. The main therapeutic properties of the plant are anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, hepatoprotective, tranquilizer, antipyretic, anti-diabetic, pediculicidal, anti-helminthic etc. The aim of the present review is to provide information related to phytochemistry, therapeutic properties, traditional uses of Hedychium spicatum in Ayurveda and folk medicinal system.
2. Yadav RN, Agarwala M. Phytochemical analysis of some medicinal plants. J Phytol 2011;3:10-4.
3. Simmler C, Graham JG, Chen SN, Pauli GF. Integrated analytical assets aid botanical authenticity and adulteration management. Fitoterapia 2018;129:401-14.
4. Ichim MC. The DNA-based authentication of commercial herbal products reveals their globally widespread adulteration. Frontiers Pharmacol 2019;10:1227.
5. Chukwuma EC, Soladoye MO, Feyisola RT. Traditional medicine and the future of medicinal plants in Nigeria. J Med Plants Studies 2015;3:23-9.
6. Lifongo LL, Simoben CV, Ntie Kang F, Babiaka SB, Judson PN. A bioactivity versus ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants from Nigeria, West Africa. Nat Prod Bioprospect 2014;4:1-9.
7. Choudhary S, Kaurav H, Chaudhary G. Kasani beej (Cichorium intybus): ayurvedic view, folk view, phytochemistry and modern therapeutic uses. Int J Res Appl Sci Biotechnol 2021;8:114-25.
8. Sravani T, Paarakh PM. Antioxidant activity of hedychium spicatum buch.-ham. rhizomes. Indian J Nat Prod Res 2012;3:354-8.
9. Jantan IB, Yassin MS, Chin CB, Chen LL, Sim NL. Antifungal activity of the essential oils of nine Zingiberaceae species. Pharm Biol 2003;41:392-7.
10. Kress WJ, Prince LM, Williams KJ. The phylogeny and a new classification of the gingers (Zingiberaceae): evidence from molecular data. Am J Bot 2002;89:1682-96.
11. Sabu M. Zingiberaceae and costaceae of south India. Kerala: Indian association for angiosperm taxonomy; 2006.
12. Collett H, Hemsley WB. Flora simlensis: A Handbook of the flowering plants of Simla and the neighbourhood. Thacker, Spink and Company; 1902.
13. Sakhanokho HF, Kelley RY, Rajasekaran K. First report of plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis from shoot apex-derived callus of Hedychium muluense RM Smith. J Crop Improvement 2008;21:191-200.
14. Branney TM. Hardy gingers: including Hedychium, Roscoea, and Zingiber. USA: Timber Press; 2005.
15. Pandeya KB, Tripathi IP, Mishra MK, Dwivedi N, Pardhi Y, Kamal A, et al. A critical review on traditional herbal drugs: An emerging alternative drug for diabetes. Int J Org Chem 2013;3:1-22.
16. Avalaskar A, Joshi A, Mahajan G, Aher Maheshkumar, Avhad U. Formulation and evaluation of antiemetic h. spicatum lozenges. J Emerging Technol Innovative Res 2020;7:771-6.
17. Chopra RN, Nayar SL, Chopra IC. Glossary of Indian medicinal plants. New Delhi: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research; 1956.
18. Ambasta SS. The useful plants of India. CSIR, New Delhi, India: Publications and Information Directorate; 1986.
19. Hazra J, Panda AK. Concept of beauty and Ayurveda medicine. J Clin Exp Dermatol Res 2013;4:1-4.
20. Singh S, Sharma N, Singh N. Hedychium spicatum: boon for the medicinal field in future. Bull Environ Pharmacol Life Sci 2018;7:188-92.
21. Mabberley DJ. The plant book: a portable dictionary of the higher plnats, utilising conquist's an integrated system of classification of flowering plants, and Current Botanical Literature Arranged Largely on the Principles of Editions 1-6 (1896/97-1931) of Willis's A Dictionary of the Flowering Plants and Ferns. Cambridge University Press; 1990.
22. Gopichand RL, Maurya AK, Agnihotri VK, Singh RD. Effect of growth hormones on seed germination and plant growth: with chemical components of Hedychium spicatum Ham. ex. Smith. Ornam Med Plants 2017;1:1-14.
23. Govindarajan R, Singh DP, Rawat AK. High-performance liquid chromatographic method for the quantification of phenolics in ‘Chyavanprash’a potent Ayurvedic drug. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2007;43:527-32.
24. Semwal DK, Mishra SP, Chauhan A, Semwal RB. Adverse health effects of tobacco and role of Ayurveda in their reduction. J Med Sci 2015;15:139.
25. Chauhan NS. Medicinal and aromatic plants of Himachal Pradesh. Indus publishing; 1999.
26. Khare CP. Indian medicinal plants: an illustrated dictionary. Springer Science and Business Media; 2008.
27. Giri D, Tamta S, Aseesh P. A review account on medicinal value of hedychium spicatum buch-ham ex sm: vulnerable medicinal plant. J Med Plants Res 2010;4:2773-7.
28. Karuppusamy S. Diversity and conservation status of red-listed medicianl plants in Tamil Nadu. Kongunadu Res J 2018;5:41-9.
29. Sharma P. Threat categorization of floristic diversity of murari devi and surrounding Areas in Mandi District of Himachal Pradesh, India. J Biol Chem Chron 2019;5:96-104.
30. Chunekar KC. Bhav Prakasa Nighantu (Hindi translation). Banaras: Chaukhamba Vidya Bhavan; 1960.
31. Sahu RB. Clinical trial of hedychium spicatum in tropical pulmonary eosinophilia. J Nepal Pharm Assoc 1979;7:65-72.
32. Rasool S, Maqbool M. An overview about hedychium spicatum: a review. J Drug Delivery Ther 2019;9:476-80.
33. Behera KK, Sahoo S, Patra S. Floristic and medicinal uses of some plants of Chandaka denudated forest patches of Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India. Ethnobotanical Leaflets 2008;2008:138.
34. Lohani N, Tewari G, Joshi GC, Tewari LM, Chandra J, Kishor K. Comparative phytochemical analysis of wild and cultivated rhizomes of Hedychium spicatum Buch. Ham. of northwest Himalaya. J Indian Chem Soc 2015;92:105-9.
35. Raina AP, Negi KS. Essential oil composition of Hedychium spicatum buch.-ham. ex smith. from Uttarakhand, India. J Essential Oil Bearing Plants 2015;18:382-8.
36. Prakash O, Rajput M, Kumar M, Pant AK. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of rhizome oils from hedychium coronarium koenig and hedychium spicatum buch-ham. J Essential Oil Bearing Plants 2010;13:250-9.
37. Bhatt VP, Negi V, Purohit VK. Hedychium spicatum buch.-ham.: a high valued skin glowing and curing medicinal herb needs future attention on its conservation. Nat Sci 2009;7:75-7.
38. Divya K, Tripathi JS, Tiwari SK. Study of antiasthmatic properties and chemical characterization of indigenous ayurvedic compounds (polyherbal formulations). Am J Phytomed Clin Ther 2013;6:457-66.
39. Choudhary GK, Singh SP. Cytotoxic potential of rhizome extracts of hedychium spicatum L. in HepG2 cell line using MTT. Indian J Animal Sci 2017;87:313-5.
40. Sabulal B, George V, Dan M, Pradeep NS. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils from the rhizomes of four Hedychium species from South India. J Essent Oil Res 2007;19:93-7.
41. Koundal R, Rawat K, Agnihotri VK, Meena RL, Gopichand, Singh RD, et al. Temporal and spatial variation in quality of essential oil of Hedychium spicatum and evaluation of its antioxidant activity. J Essent Oil Res 2015;27:217-24.
42. Bottini AT, Garfagnoli DJ. Sesquiterpene alcohols from hedychzum sizcatum var. acumznatum. J Nat Prod 1987;50:732-4.
43. Garg SN, Shawl AS, Gulati BC. Essential oil of hedychium spicatum var. acuminatum. Indian Perfum 1977;21:79-82.
44. Mishra T, Pal M, Meena S, Datta D, Dixit P, Kumar A, et al. Composition and in vitro cytotoxic activities of essential oil of hedychium spicatum from different geographical regions of western Himalaya by principal components analysis. Nat Prod Res 2016;30:1224-7.
45. Arumugam I, Krishnan C, Ramachandran S, Krishnan D, Das D, Thamankar V. Phytochemical investigation and in vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from rhizomes of hedychium spicatum. Int J Pharma Sci Sci Res 2020;6:25-9.
46. Bhatt ID, Prasad K, Rawat S, Rawal RS. PHCOG MAG.: research article evaluation of antioxidant phytochemical diversity in Hedychium spicatum: a high value medicinal plant of Himalaya. Pharmacogn Magazine 2008;4:202-5.
47. Rawat S, Bhatt ID, Rawal RS. Total phenolic compounds and antioxidant potential of Hedychium spicatum buch. ham. ex d. don in west Himalaya, India. J Food Composition Anal 2011;24:574-9.
48. Reddy PP, Rao RR, Shashidhar J, Sastry BS, Rao JM, Babu KS. Phytochemical investigation of labdane diterpenes from the rhizomes of Hedychium spicatum and their cytotoxic activity. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2009;19:6078-81.
49. Samy RP, Pushparaj PN, Gopalakrishnakone P. A compilation of bioactive compounds from Ayurveda. Bioinformation 2008;3:100.
50. Hankey A. CAM modalities can stimulate advances in theoretical biology. J Evidence Based Integr Med 2005;2:5-12.
51. Lad V. The human constitution. Ayurveda: The science of self-healing. Lotus Press: Wilmot; 1985. p. 26-36.
52. Ramgopal KV, Kumar CR. Critical review of herbs acting on pranavaha srotovikar. Int J Ayur Pharma Res 2013;1:19-26.
53. Ghildiyal S, Gautam MK, Joshi VK, Goel RK. Pharmacological evaluation of extracts of Hedychium spicatum (Ham-ex-Smith) rhizome. Ancient Sci Life 2012;31:117.
54. Phull R, Phull G, Agarwal D. Unexplored potential of ayurveda to manage the current outbreak of COVID-19: A view point. Int J Ayurveda Pharm Chem 2021;14:29-45.
55. Sai Prasad AJV, Ratna Manikyam B, Trimurtulu G, Reddy KN, Naidu ML. Physico–phytochemical investigation and analytical standardization of hedychium spicatum ham. ex Smith. (SATI). Ayurpharm Int J Ayur Appl Sci 2013;2:63-8.
56. Sinha N, Ojha NK, Srivastava P. A critical review on ayurveda drugs useful in tamaka shwasa (Childhood Asthma). Int J Tradit Herb Med 2021;9:1-8.
57. Rawat S, Jugran AK, Bhatt ID, Rawal RS. Hedychium spicatum: a systematic review on traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and future prospectus. J Pharm Pharmacol 2018;70:687-712.
58. Sravani T, Paarakh PM. Hedychium spicatum buch. ham.-an overview. Pharmacol Online 2011;2:633-42.
59. Herwade AS, Mandavkar KC. A review on hedichium spicatum–shati. Int Ayurvedic Med J 2015;3:2532-5.
60. Kajaria D. In vitro evaluation of immunomodulatory effect of polyherbal compound-bharangyadi. J Drug Delivery Ther 2013;3:36-9.
61. Divya K, Tripathi JS, Tiwari SK, Pandey BL. Anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory effect of indigenous ayurvedic drug-bharangyadi. Int J Pharm Sci 2012;1:479-83.
62. Rahman AH, Alam MS, Khan SK, Ahmed F, Islam AK, Rahman MM. Taxonomic studies on the family Asteraceae (Compositae) of the Rajshahi division. Res J Agric Biol Sci 2008;4:134-40.
63. Joshi BC, Sek KC. Ethno-medicinal notes of hat Himalaya, India. J Mountain Sci 2018;13:9-14.
64. Savithramma N, Sulochana C, Rao KN. Ethnobotanical survey of plants used to treat asthma in Andhra Pradesh, India. J Ethnopharmacol 2007;113:54-61.
65. Saradha M, Paulsamy S. Ethnobotanical study of knowledge and medicinal plants use by the kurumba tribes in Chemmankarai, Nilgiri District, Tamil Nadu. Kongunadu Res J 2017;4:136-46.
66. Lalfakzuala R, Kayang H, Lalramnghinglova H. Ethnobotanical usages of plants in western Mizoram. Indian J Traditional Knowledge 2007;6:486-93.
67. Khomdram SD, Yumkham SD, Colney VM. Plants used as antidotes against bites of venomous animals in Mizoram, Northeast India. Pleione 2018;12:172-9.
68. Londhe DJ, Arya JC, Prakash O, Rath C, Mangal AK. Folklore practices of medicinal plants by local community in ukhimath forest Area of rudraprayag district, Uttarakhand, India. Ethnobotanical Survey 2020;5:132-8.
69. Jain SP, Puri HS. Ethnomedicinal plants of jaunsar-bawar hills, Uttar Pradesh, India. J Ethnopharmacol 1984;12:213-22.
70. Hussain S, Hore DK. Collection and conservation of major medicinal plants of Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas. Indian J Traditional Knowledge 2007;6:352-7.
71. Mandal D, Panda AK, Rana M. Medicinal plants used in folk medicinal practice available in rich biodiversity of Sikkim. Environ Ecol 2013;31(3A):1445-9.
72. Singh H, Kumar V. Dhwaj sacred grove: a unique example of cultural beliefs and traditional conservation. Trop Plant Res 2020;7:553–64.
73. Dash G, Mohanty KK, Sahoo D, Mahalik G, Parida S. Traditional medicinal plants used for the treatment of asthma in Bhubaneswar, Odisha. Int J Herb Med 2018;6:57-60.
74. Padhan B, Panda D. Wild tuber species diversity and its ethno-medicinal use by tribal people of Koraput district of Odisha, India. Indian J Nat Prod Resour 2016;2:33-6.
75. Singh P, Attri BL. Survey on traditional uses of medicinal plants of Bageshwar Valley (Kumaun Himalaya) of Uttarakhand, India. Int J Conservation Sci 2014;5:223-34.
76. Ojha SN, Tiwari D, Anand A, Sundriyal RC. Ethnomedicinal knowledge of a marginal hill community of Central Himalaya: diversity, usage pattern, and conservation concerns. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2020;16:1-21.
77. Mehra A, Bajpai O, Joshi H. Diversity, utilization and sacred values of ethno-medicinal plants of Kumaun Himalaya. Trop Plant Res 2014;1:80-6.
78. Rana CS, Tiwari JK, Dangwal LR, Gairola S. Faith herbal healer knowledge document of Nanda Devi Biosphere reserve, Uttarakhand, India. Indian J Traditional Knowledge 2013;12:308-14.
79. Gaur RD, Sharma J. Indigenous knowledge on the utilization of medicinal plant diversity in the siwalik region of garhwal Himalaya, Uttarakhand. J Forest Environ Sci 2011;27:23-31.
80. Uniyal B, Shiva V. Traditional knowledge on medicinal plants among rural women of the Garhwal Himalaya, Uttaranchal. Indian J Traditional Knowledge 2005;4:259-66.
81. Dwivedi T, Kanta C, Singh LR, Prakash I. A list of some important medicinal plants with their medicinal uses from Himalayan State Uttarakhand, India. J Med Plants 2019;7:106-16.
82. Ballabha R, Tiwari JK, Tiwari P. Medicinal plant diversity in dhundsir gad Watershed of Garhwal Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India. J Ethnobiol Traditional Med Photon 2013;119:424-33.
83. Nirmand PO, Valley BI. Diversity, distribution and indigenous uses of mediginal. J Non Timber Forest Products 2014;21:145-52.
84. Radha SP, Pundir A. Survey of wild medicinal plants used by migratory shepherds in summer hill of District Shimla in Himachal Pradesh. Bio Bull 2019;5:8-24.
85. Painkra VK, Jhariya MK, Raj A. Assessment of knowledge of medicinal plants and their use in tribal region of Jashpur district of Chhattisgarh, India. J Appl Nat Sci 2015;7:434-42.
86. Shankar R, Tripathi AK, Neyaz S, Anku G. Distribution and conservation of medicinal plants in, kohima mokokchung, tuenseng and zunheboto districts of nagaland. World J Pharm Res 2016;3:1225-37.
87. Win TT. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants among four Chin indigenous groups in tedim township, Northern Chin State, Myanmar. J Herbal Med 2020;11:284-95.
88. Malla B, Gauchan DP, Chhetri RB. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by ethnic people in Parbat District of Western Nepal. J Ethnopharmacol 2015;165:103-17.
89. Thapa LB, Dhakal TM, Chaudhary R, Thapa H. Medicinal plants used by Raji ethnic tribe of Nepal in treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Our Nat 2013;11:177-86.
90. Pitopang R, Hamzah B, Zubair MS, Amar AL, Fathurahman F, Basri Z, et al. Diversity of zingiberaceae and traditional uses by three indigenous groups at Lore Lindu National Park, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Int J Physics: Conference Series 2019;1242:012039.
91. Thakur S, Sidhu MC. Medicinal plant remedies for dermatological problems. Curr Bot 2017;8:23-33.
92. But PP, Tomlinson B, Cheung KO, Yong SP, Szeto ML, Lee CK. Adulterants of herbal products can cause poisoning. Br Med J 1996;313:117.
93. Ernst E. Adulteration of Chinese herbal medicines with synthetic drugs: a systematic review. J Int Med 2002;252:107-13.
94. Huang WF, Wen KC, Hsiao ML. Adulteration by synthetic therapeutic substances of traditional Chinese medicines in Taiwan. J Clin Pharmacol 1997;37:344-50.
95. Snyman T, Stewart MJ, Grove A, Steenkamp V. Adulteration of South African traditional herbal remedies. Ther Drug Monit 2005;27:86-9.
96. Ang HH. Lead contamination in Eugenia dyeriana herbal preparations from different commercial sources in Malaysia. Food Chem Toxicol 2008;46:1969-75.
97. Bogusz MJ, Hassan H, Al-Enazi E, Ibrahim Z, Al-Tufail M. Application of LC–ESI–MS–MS for detection of synthetic adulterants in herbal remedies. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2006;41:554-64.
98. Osathanunkul M, Madesis P, de Boer H. Bar-HRM for authentication of plant-based medicines: evaluation of three medicinal products derived from acanthaceae species. Plos One 2015;10:1-11.
99. Zhang J, Wider B, Shang H, Li X, Ernst E. Quality of herbal medicines: challenges and solutions. Complementary Ther Med 2012;20:100-6.
100. Sharma PC, Yelne MB, Dennis TJ, Joshi A, Billore KV. Database on medicinal plants used in Ayurveda. Vol. 4. New Delhi: Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha; 2002.
101. Joharchi MR, Amiri MS. Taxonomic evaluation of misidentification of crude herbal drugs marketed in Iran. Avicenna J Phytomed 2012;2:105.
102. Wallace LJ, Boilard SM, Eagle SH, Spall JL, Shokralla S, Hajibabaei M. DNA barcodes for everyday life: routine authentication of natural health products. Food Res Int 2012;49:446-52.
103. Zahra NB, Shinwari ZK, Qaiser MU. Dna barcoding: a tool for standardization of herbal medicinal products (HMPS) of lamiaceae from Pakistan. Pakistan J Bot 2016;48:2167-74.
104. Chachad D, Shimpi S. Anti-inflammatory activity of 'kapurkachari'. Electronic J Pharmacol Ther 2008;1:25-7.
105. Bisht GS, Awasthi AK, Dhole TN. Antimicrobial activity of hedychium spicatum. Fitoterapia 2006;77:240-2.
106. Feng J, Shi W, Miklossy J, Tauxe GM, McMeniman CJ, Zhang Y. Identification of essential oils with strong activity against stationary phase borrelia burgdorferi. Antibiotics 2018;7:89.
107. Arora R, Mazumder A. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of rhizomes of hedychium spicatum. Pharmacogn J 2017;9:64-8.
108. Joshi Uttara P, Mishra SH. In vitro hepatoprotective activity of isolated diterpene from hedychium spicatum. Pharmacologyonline 2011;1:990-7.
109. Kaur H, Richa R. Antidiabetic activity of essential oil of Hedychium spicatum. Int J Pharmacogn Phytochem Res 2017;9:853-7.
110. Chopra N. Tranquilizing action of essential oils of Hedychium spicatum. Indian J Pharmacol 1979;11:147.
111. Choudhary GK, Singh SP. Ameliorating potential of hedychium spictum on oxidative stress following chronic exposure to indoxacarb in WLH cockerels. Indian J Anim Res 2017;51:832-6.
112. Jadhav V, Kore A, Kadam VJ. In vitro pediculicidal activity of hedychium spicatum essential oil. Fitoterapia 2007;78:470-3.
113. Sravani T, Paarakh PM, Shruthi SD. In silico and in vitro anthelmintic activity of ?-sitosterol isolated from rhizomes of Hedychium spicatum buch.-ham. Indian J Nat Prod Res 2014;5:258-61.
114. Arora R, Mazumder A. A study on antipyretic activity of methanolic extract of rhizomes of Hedychium spicatum plant. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2017;6:1503-6.