ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIDIARRHEAL EFFECTS OF FOUR CAMEROON MEDICINAL PLANTS: DICHROCEPHALA INTEGRIFOLIA, DIOSCOREA PREUSII, MELENIS MINUTIFLORA, AND TRICALYSIA OKELENSIS
Objective: In order to verify the antidiarrheal activities of Dichrocephala integrifolia, Dioscorea preusii, Melenis minutiflora, Tricalysia okelensis, the in vitro antimicrobial effect on Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae A1 and Candida albicans, and the in vivo antidiarrheal activities on the intestine transit of the hydroethanol (v/v) plants extracts were studied.
Methods: The antimicrobial effect of the extracts was assayed in vitro by the disc diffusion and the agar dilution methods. For in vivo study, male and female mice received per os castor oil and one hour later different doses of the extracts.
Results: In vitro, D. integrifolia, D. preusii, M. minutiflora, and T. okelensis extract showed concentration-dependent activity against all the tested microbial strains with the inhibition zone ranged from 08 to 24 mm. D. integrifolia 0.5 mg/mL showed the lowest MIC on Candida albicans. The M. minutiflora and D. integrifolia MIC was 3 mg/mL on Escherichia coli and Shigella dysenteriae A1. In vivo, D. integrifolia, D. preusii, T. okelensis extract at 50 and 100 mg/kg bw and M. minutiflora 75 and 150 mg/kg bw significantly (P< 0.01) inhibited the intestinal charcoal transit. D. integrifolia 100 mg/kg bw exhibited the highest inhibition rate, 70%.
Conclusion: These results suggest that D. integrifolia, D. preusii, M. minutiflora and T. okelensis extracts possesses antimicrobial and antidiarrheal properties, could be effective for diarrhea treating, and could thus justify their use in traditional medicine to treat diarrhea. D. integrifolia could have the most efficiency antimicrobial properties.Keywords: Dichrocephala integrifolia, Dioscorea preusii, Melenis minutiflora, Tricalysia okelensis, Antidiarrheal effects, Antimicrobial activity
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