ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF HONEY AGAINST ESBL PRODUCING KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE FROM BURN WOUND INFECTIONS
Objective: The present study compares the effect of Manuka and Jambhul honey on ten clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases (ESBLs) from burn wound infections.
Methods: The isolated organisms were identified and screened for ESBL production, which was further confirmed by Confirmatory Phenotypic Disc diffusion test and E-test. The antibacterial activity of Manuka and Jambhul honey was analysed using Agar cup method for varying concentrations of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%. The Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Manuka and Jambhul honey against the isolates was determined using Agar dilution method.
Results: MIC was found to be in the range of 30%-40% (v/v) for both honey. The average MIC of Manuka for all the 10 isolates was estimated to be 34% whereas that of Jambhul, was 36.5% and this difference was found to be statistically insignificant (P>0.05 t test). Total phenolic content (TPC) in Manuka and Jambhul honey was estimated using Folinâ€™s Ciocalteau method and was found to be 1.22 mg TA/gm in Manuka honey and 1.18 mg TA/gm in Jambhul honey.
Conclusion: Thus, the study showed that honey may be an effective antimicrobial agent against ESBL producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from burn wound infections. It also proved that antimicrobial activity of Indian Jambhul honey is comparable to New Zealandâ€™s Manuka honey.Keywords: ESBL, Manuka honey, Jambhul honey, E-test, MIC, TPC.
2. Paterson DL, Bonomo RA. Extended-spectrum Beta-lactamases A clinical update. Clin Microbiol Rev 2005;18:657â€“86.
3. Mehta M, Dutta P, Gupta V. Bacterial isolates from burn wound infections and their antibiograms: a eight-year study. Indian J Plast Surg 2007;40:25-8.
4. Sinai WM. Isolation and identification of aerobic pathogenic bacteria from burn wound infections. J Al-Nahrain University 2007;10:94-7.
5. Alaa H, Al-Charrakh, Samira YY, Al-Janabi SH. Occurrence and detection of Extended-spectrum beta lactamases in Klebsiella isolates in Hilla, Iraq. Afr J Biotechnol 2011;10:657-65.
6. Podschun R, Ullmann U. Klebsiella spp. as nosocomial pathogens: epidemiology, taxonomy, typing methods, and pathogenicity factors. Clin Microbiol Rev 1998;11:589â€“603.
7. Shukla I, Tiwari R, Agarwal M. Prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a tertiary care Hospital. Indian J Med Microbiol 2004;22:87-91.
8. Archana G, Krow A, David R, Lisa S. Extended spectrum beta lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae infections: a review of the literature. J Perinatol 2003;23:439â€“43.
9. Jason WB, Janelle LR, Duane RH, Steven EW, Kevin KC, Katrin M, et al. Impact of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing klebsiella pneumoniae infections in severely burned patients. J Am Coll Surg 2010;211:391-9.
10. Rajeshwar SR, Jaya LL, S Pavani, Vijendra K, Jaya SP. Bacteriological profile, antibiogram of burn wound isolates and detection of MRSA and ESBL production at tertiary care hospital, Hyderabad. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;3:1691-8.
11. Agbaje EO, Ogunsanya T, Aiwerioba OI. Conventional uses of Honey. Ann Afr Med 2006;5:78-81.
12. Molan P. The antibacterial activity of honey-2. Variation in the potency of the antibacterial activity. Bee World 1992;73:59-76.
13. Molan P. Potential of honey in the treatment of wounds and burns. Am J Clin Dermatol 2001;2:13-9.
14. Manisha DM, Shyamapada M. Honey: its medicinal property and antibacterial activity. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2011;4:154-60.
15. Molan PC. A brief review of the use of honey as a clinical dressing. Australian J Wound Management 1988;6:148-58.
16. Orla S, Anthony D, Rahma A, Alice P, Georgina G, Seamus C, et al. Comparison of the antimicrobial activity of Ulmo honey from Chile and Manuka honey against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. BMC Complementary Altern Med 2010;10:47.
17. Sunita DD, Kirti SK. In vitro effect of some Indian honeys on Staphylococcus aureus from wounds. Indian J Exp Biol 2010;48:931-5.
18. Omoya FO. Sterility examination and comparative analyses of inhibitory effect of honey on some gram negative and gram positive food borne pathogens in south west nigeria. Int J Med Health Pharm Biomed Eng 2013;7:64-6.
19. Washington C, Allen SD, Janda WM, Koneman EW, Schreckenberger PC. Color atlas and textbook of diagnostic microbiology. 6th ed. UK: Lipincott Williams Wilkins Pubishers; 2005.
20. Clinical Laboratory Standards institute. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. 22nd Informational Supplement. M100-S22;32:3, Wayne, PA; 2012.
21. Wafaa J, Rotimi VO, Fatima K, Rolla S, Aleyamma P, Ghyada AH. Prevalence of Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas and stenotrophomonas as determined by the VITEK 2 and E test systems in a kuwait teaching hospital. Med Princ Pract 2005;14:325â€“31.
22. Adeleke OE, Olaitan JO, Okpekpe EI. Comparative antibacterial activity of honey and gentamicin against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ann Burns Fire Disasters 2006;19:201-4.
23. Clinical Laboratory Standards institute. Methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobically; Approved Standard. 9th Ed. M 07-A9;32:2, Wayne, PA; 2012.
24. Mullai V, Menon T. Antibacterial activity of honey against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Indian J Pharmacol 2005;37:403.
25. Makkar HP, Bluemmel M, Borowy NK, Becker K. Gravimetric determination of tannins and their correlations with chemical and protein precipitation methods. J Sci Food Agric 1993;61:161-5.
26. Suhad SH, Viorica I. Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) medicinal use, extraction and identification of its total phenolics compounds. Farm 2009;57:192-200.
27. Christian GG, Dominique LM, Otto C, Yehuda C. Clinical and economic impact of common multidrug resistant gram-negative bacilli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2008;52:813-21.
28. Zumla A, Lulat A. Honeyâ€“a remedy rediscovered. J R Soc Med 1989;82:384-5.
29. Willix DJ, Molan PC, Harfoot CG. A comparison of the sensitivity of wound infecting species of bacteria to the antibacterial activity of Manuka honey and other honey. J Appl Bacteriol 1992;73:388-94.
30. Irish J, Blair S, Carter DA. The Antibacterial activity of honey derived from australian flora. PLoS ONE 2011;6:e18229.
31. Khajuria A, Praharaj AK, Kumar M, Grover N, Aggarwal A. Multidrug resistant NDM-1 metallo-beta-lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae sepsis outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit in a tertiary care center at central India. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2014;57:65-8.
32. Bernard Dixon. Bacteria canâ€™t resist honey. Lancet Infect Dis 2003;3:116.