NICANDRA PHYSALOIDES (L.) GAERTNâ€“A LESS KNOWN WILD EDIBLE FRUIT
Objective: Present study aims to understand the nutritional as well as medicinal potential ofÂ Nicandra physaloidesÂ fruits.
Methods: Fresh as well as shade dried material was used for estimation of moisture content, crude protein, crude fibres, lipids, fat, reducing and non-reducing sugars, total soluble sugars, starch, total nitrogen, vitamins and antioxidants. Mineral content was estimated in terms of ash yield and further analysis was carried out for qualitative and quantitative estimation of different elements. Material was also screened for presence of bioactive molecules.
Results: The study showed that, N. physaloidesÂ fruits were rich in proteins, carotenoids, vitaminâ€“A and vitaminâ€“C. The fruits were also found to be the good source of antioxidants like lycopene, anthocyanin, chlorophyll and phenols. Screening of bioactive molecules showed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, tannins, and polyoses which impart medicinal potential to plant.
Conclusion: The study confirmed the nutritional as well as medicinal potential of fruits ofÂ N. physaloides. Still more studies are needed on its toxicity.Keywords: Nicandra physaloides, Fruit, Less Known, Wild, Edible.
2. Mann AS, Jain NK, Kharya MD. Antimicrobial studies on nicandra physaloides. Niger J Nat Prod Med 2008;11:71-4.
3. Devi P, Meera R, Muthumani P, Chilakalapudi R, Thota V, Murthy DVD, et al. Evaluation of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Nicandra physaloides leaves for its diuretic activity. Int J Pharm Biol Arch 2010;1(4):331-4.
4. Kunkel G. Plants for Human consumption. Koenigstein: Koeltz Scientific Books; 1984.
7. Thimmaiah SR. Standard Methods of Biochemical Analysis. New Delhi: Kalyani Publishers; 1999.
8. Sadasivam S, Manikam A. Biochemical Methods. 2nd ed. New Delhi: New Age International (P) Limited Publishers; 2005.
9. Harborne JB. Phytochemical methods. London: Chapman and Hall Limited; 1973.
10. Gibbs RD. Chemotaxanomy of flowering plants. Montreal: Mc. Gill Queenâ€™s University Press; 1974.
11. Peach K, Tracey MV. Modern methods of plants analysis (Rpr. Edn.). New Delhi: Narosa Publication; 1979.
12. Chabra SC, Ulso F, Mshin EN. Phytochemical screening of tanzanian medicinal plants. J. Ethnopharmacol 1984;11:151-79.
13. Evans WC, Trease GE. Pharmacognosy. 14th ed. Singapore: WB Saunders Company Limited; 1997.
14. Kokate CK, Purohit AP, Gokhale SB. Pharmacognosy. Pune: Nirali Prakashan; 1998.
15. Kulkarni PH, Apte BK. Research Methodology for students of Ayurveda. Pune: Ayurveda Research Institute; 2000.
16. Johanson DA. Plant Microtechnique. New Delhi: Tata Mc-Grawhill Publishing Company, Ltd; 1940.
17. Gupta AK, Varshney ML. Practical Manual on Agricultural Chemistry. IInd Ed, Kalyani publishers, New Delhi; 1997.
18. Elegbede JA. Legumes. In: Osagie AU, Eka OU. Nutritional quality of plant foods. Benin: Post harvest research unit, University of Benin; 1998. p. 53-83.
19. Chatterjee IB. Lâ€“ascorbic acid, synthesis in birds: phylogenetic trend. Sci 1969;164:435-6.
20. Chaudhari CR, Chatterjee IB. Evolution and the biosynthesis of ascorbic acid. Sci 1973;182:1271-2.
21. Gerster H. Anticarcinogenic effect of common carotenoids. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1993;63:93-121.
22. Peto R, Doll R, Buckley JD, Spom MB. Can dietary beta-carotene materially reduce human cancer rates? Nat 1981;290:201-8.
23. Van Poppel G, Goldbohm RA. Epidemiological evidence for g-carotene and cancer prevention. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;62(1):3938-4028.
24. Kohlmeier L, Hastings S. Epidemiological evidence of a role of carotenoids in cardiovascular disease prevention. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;62:1370.
25. Gey KF, Moser UK, Jordan P, Stahelin HB, Eichholzer M, Ludin E. Increased risk of Cardiovascular disease at suboptimal plasma concentrations of essential antioxidants: an epidemiological update with special attention to carotene and vitamin C. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;57:787-97.
26. Street DA, Comstock GW, Salkeld RM, Schuep W, Klag MJ. Serum antioxidants and myocardial infarction: are low levels of carotenoids and alpha-tocopherol risk factors for myocardial infarction? Circulation 1994;90:1154-61.
27. Snodderley DM. Evidence for protection against age-related macular degeneration by carotenoids and antioxidant vitamins. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;62:1448-61.
28. Ames BN, Shigenaga M, Hagen TM. Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1993;90:7915-22.
29. MaCollum EV. A history of nutrition: The sequence of ideas in nutrition investigations. Boston: Houghton Mifflin; 1957.
30. Goodman LS, Gilman A. The pharmacological basis of Therapeutics. Mc-Grawâ€“Hill, USA; 1996.
31. Chitlangia R, Mukherjee R. As winter sets in vitaminâ€“C vanishes from shop. The Times of India, New Delhi; 2008.
32. Janab M, Thompson LU. Role of Phytic acid in cancer and other diseases. In: N R Reddy, SK Sathe. Food Phytates. CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL; 2002. p. 225-48.
34. Masuda T, Inaba Y, Maekawa T, Takeda Y, Yamaguchi H, Nakamoto K et al. Simple detection method of powerful antiradical compounds in the raw extract of plants and its application for the identification of antiradical plant constituents. J of Agric and Food Chem 2003;51:1831-38.
35. Gorecka D, Lampart-Szczapa E, Janitz W, Sokolowska B. Composition of fractional and functional properties of dietary fibre of Lupines (L. luteus and L. albus). Nahrung 2000;44:229-32.
36. Ishida H, Suzuno H, Sugiyama N, Innami S, Todokoro T, Maekawa A. Nutritional evaluation of chemical component of leaves stalks and stems of sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas Poir.). Food Chem 2000;68:359â€“67.
37. Ramula P, Rao PU. Dietary fibre content of fruits and leafy vegetables. Nutrition News 2003;24:1-6.
38. Adeyeye E. The chemical composition of liquid and solid endosperm of ripe coconut. Orient J Chem 2004;20:471-8.