• Manisha Bhoskar Department of Quality assurance technique, MET’s Institute of Pharmacy, Bhujbal Knowledge City, Adgaon, Nashik-422003, Maharashtra, India
  • Priyanka Patil Department of Quality assurance technique, MET’s Institute of Pharmacy, Bhujbal Knowledge City, Adgaon, Nashik-422003, Maharashtra, India


Objective: The aim of this paper was to develop and evaluate of paclitaxel (PTX) loaded bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticals using 24 factorial designs.

Methods: Bovine serum albumin nanoparticals prepared by using desolvation technique method followed by spray drying. In the next step, the effect of different formulation variables, including the amount of polymer BSA (A), Tween 80 (B), Glutarldehyde (C) and Speed (D) on the particle size, entrapment efficiency and % cumulative release of drug was investigated. Based on the type and the variables studied, 16 formulations were designed using factorial design method and were then prepared. The prepared antiparticle was characterized for particle size, drug entrapment, and percentage yield, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Differential scanning calorimetry, zeta potential and in-vitro release study.

Results: In order to detect the precise effect of the variables and their interactions, design expert software was used. Among the formulations suggested and based on the predicted responses and their desirability indices two formulations were selected as the optimum formulations and evaluated. Based on in-vitro release study formulations show biphasic release pattern with initial burst effect followed by a slower and sustained release.

Conclusion: The result showed that the method was easy and efficient for the entrapment of the drug as well as the formation of spherical nanoparticles.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Targeted drug delivery system, Paclitaxel, Bovine serum albumin, factorial design


1. Vassilios K, Dimitrios B. Research article, new biocompatible aliphatic polyesters as thermosensitive drug nanocarriers. application in targeting release pharmaceutical systems for local cancer treatment. J Nanomed Nanotechnol 2012;3(3):1-9.
2. Danhier F, Feron O, Préat V. Review, To exploit the tumor microenvironment: passive and active tumor targeting of nanocarriers for anti-cancer drug delivery. J Controlled Release 2010;148:135–46.
3. Pundir AR, Wankhade RP, Bhalerao SS. Review Article, microspheres: novel approach for cancer targeting. IJPT 2012;4(2):2034-54.
4. You HB, Kinam P. Targeted drug delivery to tumors: Myths, reality and possibility. J Controlled Release 2011;153:198–205.
5. Vladimir PT. Multifunctional nanocarriers. Adv Drug Delivery Rev 2006;58:1532–55.
6. Kuldeep M, Singh SK, Mishra DN, Shrivastava B. Nanoparticles: an advance technique for drug delivery. RJPBCS 2012;3(3):1186-208.
7. Amit S Manmode, Dinesh M Sakarkar, Nilesh M Mahajan. nanoparticles-tremendous therapeutic potential: a review. Int J Pharm Tech Res 2009;1(4):1020-7.
8. Kumar BS, Kumar KLS, Anand DCP, Saravanakumar M, Thirumurthy R. Design and development of paclitaxel-loaded microspheres for targeted drug delivery to the colon. IJBR 2010;1(2):80‐98.
9. Bansal A, Kapoor DN, Kapil R, Chhabra N, Dhawan S. Design and development of paclitaxel-loaded bovine serum albumin nanoparticles for brain targeting. Acta Pharm 2011;61:141–56.
10. Juan L, Ping Y. Self-assembly of ibuprofen and bovine serum albumin-dextran conjugates leading to effective loading of the drug. Langmuir 2009;25(11):6385–91.
11. Kratz F. Albumin, a versatile carrier in oncology. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2010;48(7):453-5.
12. HADBA A. R: Synthesis, properties and in-vivo evaluation of sustained release albumin-mitoxantrone microsphere formulations for nonsystemic treatment of breast cancer and other high mortality cancers. Thesis University of florida; 2001.
13. Bolton B, Bon C. Pharmaceutical Statistics, practical and clinical applications, Drug and the pharmaceutical sciences. 5th ed. New York: Marcel Dekker; 2005. p. 265-83, 506-39.
14. Solmaz Dehghan, Reza Aboofazeli, Mohammadreza Avadi, Ramin Khaksar. Research paper, Formulation optimization of nifedipine containing microspheres using factorial design. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 2010;4(6):346-54.
15. Alphia K Jones, Naveen K Bejugam, Henry Nettey, Richard Addo, Martin J. D’Souza, Research article, Spray-dried doxorubicin-albumin microparticulate systems for treatment of multidrug resistant melanomas. J Drug Targeting 2011;19(6):427–33.
16. Sailaji AK, Amareshwar P. Research article, Preparation of BSA nanoparticles by desolvation technique using acetone as desolvating agent. Int J Pharm Sci Nanotech 2012;5(1):1643-7.
17. Rahimnejad M, M Jahanshahi, GD Najafpour. Research Paper, Production of biological nanoparticles from bovine serum albumin for drug delivery. Afr J Biotechnol 2006;5(20):1918-23.
18. Sushmitha Sundar, Joydip Kundu, Subhas C Kundu. Review, Biopolymeric nanoparticles. Sci Technol Adv Mater 2010;11:1-13.
19. Jithan AV. Preparation and characterization of albumin nanoparticles encapsulating curcumin intended for the treatment of breast cancer. Int J Pharm 2011;1(2):119-25.
20. Kamel AO. Preparation and characterization of acyclovir nanoparticles by double emulsion technique. EJBS 2007;23:166-75.
21. Park J. PEGylated PLGA nanoparticles for the improved delivery of doxorubicin. Nanomed 2009;5:410-8.
22. Cuif. Preparation and characterization of melittin-loaded poly (dl-lactic acid) or poly (dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres made by the double emulsion method. J Controlled Release 2005;107:310-9.
23. Machado SR, Evangelista RC. Development and characterization of Cefoxitin. J Basic Appl Pharm Sci 2010;31(3):193-202.
24. Kumar DA. Development and characterization of chitosan nanoparticles. IRJP 2011;2(5):145-51.
25. Joshi SA. Rivastigmine-loaded PLGA and PBCA nanoparticles: Preparation, optimization, characterization, in vitro and pharmacodynamic studies. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2007;76:189-99.
26. Kumar PV, Jain NK. Suppression of agglomeration of ciprofloxacin-loaded human serum albumin nanoparticles. AAPS Pharm Sci Tech 2007;8(1):E1-E6.
27. The official compandia of standards the united states pharmacopoeial convention. Ascan ed. United States of Pharmacopoeia 29-National Formulary 24, Rockville Toronto: Webcom Ltd; 2006. p. 1624.
28. Zhang JY. Preparation of the albumin nanoparticle system loaded with both paclitaxel and sorafenib and its evaluation in vitro and in vivo. J Microencapsulation 2011;28(6):528–36.
29. Takashima Y. Spray-drying preparation of microparticles containing cationic PLGA nanospheres as gene carriers for avoiding aggregation of nanospheres. Int J Pharm 2007;343:262-9.
30. Desai, Kashappa GH, Park HJ. Preparation and characterization of drug-loaded chitosan–tripolyphosphate microspheres by spray drying. Drug Dev Res 2005;64:114–28.
31. Nanda RK, Patil SS, Navathar DA. chitosan nanoparticles loaded with thiocolchicoside. Der Pharm Chem 2012;4(4):1619-25.
32. ICH Q1A (R2). Stability testing guidelines: Stability testing of new drug substances and products, The European agency for the evaluation of medicinal products; 2003. p. 4-20.
732 Views | 961 Downloads
How to Cite
Bhoskar, M., and P. Patil. “DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF PACLITAXEL LOADED NANOPARTICLES USING 24 FACTORIAL DESIGN”. International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research, Vol. 7, no. 2, Apr. 2015, pp. 64-72,
Original Article(s)