SPHERICAL CRYSTALLISATION: A REVOLUTION IN THE FIELD OF PARTICLE ENGINEERING
Now-a-days direct tabletting technique is gaining more importance in Pharmaceutical manufacturing because it save money and time for tabletting but Good flowability and compressibility is prerequisite for drug to be prepared by direct compression. There are several techniques available to impart desired compressibility to drug, but the Spherical crystallization technique is the most promising one in which the drug crystals are modified using different solvents to directly compressible spherical agglomerates. Spherical agglomeration is particle engineering technique which involves the transformation of fine crystals into spherical shape which in turn enhances the powder properties such as particle size, shape, flow properties, solubility and bioavailability of pharmaceutical drug substances. The spherical crystallization further developed use with hydrophilic polymers to enhance dissolution rate characteristics of poorly water soluble drugs and can also be applied to sustain the drug release from solid dosage forms. The present review aims at the detailed comprehensive study about the technique, advantages and disadvantages, mechanism, different manufacturing methods of spherical agglomerates and characterization of spherical agglomerates.
Keywords: Spherical crystallization, Spherical agglomeration, Direct compression, Flowability, Compressibility.
2. Ujwala R, Redasani K, Kothwade S. Preparation and in-vitro evaluation of loperamide hydrochloride spherical crystals by emulsion solvent diffusion technique. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013;5:409-13.
3. Krishna E, Gupta V, Jyothi S. Spherical crystallisation-a modern technique for direct compression of pharmaceutical substances. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2012;5:114-7.
4. Dixit M, Kulkarni P, Johri A. Spherical agglomerates of mefanamic acid by solvent change method. Int J Pharm Sci 2011;2:111-25.
5. Parida R. Evaluation parameters for spherical agglomerates formed by spherical crystallisation technique. Int J Pharma Bio Sci 2010;1:1-10.
6. Yadav VB, Yadav AV. Comparative tabletting behaviour of crystals granules with spherical agglomerated crystals prepared by spherical crystallisation technique. Int J Chem Tech Res 2009;1:476-82.
7. Nokdochi A, Maghsoodi M, Masan D. Preparation of agglomerated crystals for improving flowability and compactibility of poorly flowable and compactive drug and excipients. Powder Technol 2007;175:73-81.
8. Rasenack N, Muller B. Ibuprofen crystals with optimised properties. Int J Pharm 2002;245:9-24.
9. Martino P, Cristofaro R. Improved compression properties of propyphenazone spherical crystals. Int J Pharm 2000;197:95-106.
10. Martino P, Bartheleny C, Pina F. Improved dissolution behaviour of fenbufen by spherical crystallisation. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 1999;25:1073-81.
11. Espitalier F, Biscans B. Spherical crystallisation modelling of emulsion solvent diffusion technique. Powder Technol 1997;1:1-3.
12. Deshpande MC, Pawar AP. Evaluation of spherical crystals as a particle size enlargement technique for aspirin. Indian J Pharm Sci 1997;2:32-4.
13. Kawashima Y, Cui F. Improvement in flowability and compressibillty of pharmaceutical crystals for direct tabletting by Spherical crystallisation with a two solvent system. Powder Technol 1994;78:151-7.
14. Kawashima Y. Development of spherical crystallisation technique and its application to pharmaceutical systems. Arch Pharmacal Res 1984;7:145-51.
15. Patil B, Gupta VR, Udupi RH, Srikanth K, Pati NB, Prasad GB. Spherical agglomerationâ€“direct tabletting technique. Int Res J Pharm 2011;2:30-5.
16. Mahanty S, Sruti J, Patra N, Rao ME. Particle design of drugs by spherical crystallization techniques. Int J Pharm Sci Nanotechnol 2010;3:912-8.
17. Garg J, Khatry S, Arora S. Spherical crystallization: an overview. Int J Pharm Technol 2012;4:1909-28.
18. Andreou JG, Stewart PJ, Morton DV. Short-term changes in drug agglomeration within interactive mixtures following blending. Int J Pharm 2009;372:1â€“11.
19. Tiwari S, Verma P. Spherical crystallizationâ€“a novel drug delivery system. Int J Pharm Life Sci 2011;2:1065-8.
20. Yadav AV, Bhagat NB, Mastud PR, Khutale PR. An overview of optimization of spherical crystallisation process. Int J Pharm Sci Nanotechnol 2013;6:2203-9.