USING PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY IN ROOT CANAL SYSTEM – A LITERATURE REVIEW
Keywords:Bacteria, Enterococcus faecalis, Microorganism, Photodynamic therapy, Root canal
Microorganisms do play in pulpal and periapical infection. Success of endodontic treatment aims at effective eradication of bacteria from the root canal space. This, in turn, prevents further microbial recolonization. Persistent microbial colonies in the root canal lead to failure of the endodontic treatment. With the advent of photodynamic therapy (PDT), a novel invasive approach is aimed at complete disinfection of root canal with elimination of bacteria. Therefore, this paper aims to highlight the efficiency of PDT in endodontics by reviewing the literature published in journals
Nair PN, Figdor D. Persistant periapical radiolucencies of root-filled human teeth, failed endodontic treatment and periapical scan. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1999;87:617-27.
Plotino G, Grande N, Mercade M. Photodynamic therapy in endodontics. Int Endod J 2018;52:760-74.
Siqueira J. Aetiology of root canal treatment failure: Why well-tretaed teeth can fail. Int Endod J 2001;34:1-10.
Gomes BP, Gade Neto CR. Microbiological examination of infected dental root canals. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2004;19:71-6.
Takasaki AA, Mizutani K, Scharz F, Sculean A, Wang CY, Koshy G, et al. Application of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy in periodontal and periimplant disease. Periodontal 2009;51:109-40.
Ackroyd RK, Brown N, Reed M. The history of photo detection and photodynamic therapy. Photochem Photobiol 2001;74:656-69.
Raab O. Uber die wirkung fluoreszierender stoffe auf infusorien. Z Biol 1900;39:524-46.
Weiner GP. Laser dentistry practice management. Dent Clin North Am 2004;48:1105-26.
Mester EL, Selyei M, Szende B, Total GJ. The stimulating effect of low power laser rays on biological systems. Laser Rev 1968;1:3.
De Oliveira BP, Camara AC. Photodynamic therapy in combating the causative micro organisms from endodontic infections. Eur J Dent 2014;8:424-30.
Dougherty TJ, Henderson BW, Jori G, Kessel D, Korbelik M. Moan J, et al. Photodynamic therapy. J Natl Cancer Ins 1998;90:889-905.
Mohammadi ZJ, Shalavi S, Kinoshita JI. Photodynamic therapy in endodontics. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18:534-8.
Mohammadi ZJ, Shalavi S, Yaripour S, Sharifi F, Kinoshita JI. A review on triple antibiotic paste as a suitable material used in regenerative endodontics. Iran Endod J 2018;13:1.
Konopka KE. Photodynamic therapy in dentistry. J Dent Res 2007;86:694-707.
Meisal PK. Photodynamic therapy for periodontal diseases: State of the art. J Photochem Photobiol B 2005;79:159-70.
Hamblin MR. Photodynamic therapy: A new antimicrobial approach to infectious disease? Photochem Photobiol Sci 2004;3:436-50.
Fimple JL, Foschi F, Ruggiero K, Song X, Pagonis TC. Photodynamic treatment of endodontic polymicrobial infection. J Endod 2008;34:728-34.
Usacheva MN, Biel MA. Comparison of the methylene blue and toluidine blue photobactericidal efficacy against gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. Lasers Surg Med 2001;29:165-73.
Zeina BG, Purcell WM, Das B. Killing of cutaneous microbial species by photodynamic therapy. Br J Dermatol 2001;144:274-8.
Soukos NS, Morris JT, Ruggiero K, Abernethy AD, Som S, Foschi F, et al. Photodynamic therapy for endodontic disinfection. J Endod 2006;32:979-84.
Foote C. Definition of Type I and Type II photosensitized oxidation. Photochem Photobiol 1991;54:659.
Ng RS, Papamanou DA, Song X, Patel C, Holewa C. Endodontic photodynamic therapy. J Endod 2011;37:217-22.
Vaziri SK, Shahbazi R, Nasab AN, Naseri M. Comparison of the bactericidal efficacy of photodynamic therapy, 2.5% sodium hypochlorite, and 2% chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis in root canals; an in vitro study. Dent Res J 2012;9:613.
Komine CT. A small amount of singlet oxygen generated via excited methylene blue by photodynamic therapy induces the sterilization of Enterococcus faecalis. J Endod 2013;39:411-4.
Pagonis TC, Fontana CR, Devalapally H, Ruggiero K, Song X. Nanoparticle-based endodontic antimicrobial photodynamic therapy. J Endod 2010;36:322-8.
Rios AH, Glickman GN, Spears R, Schneiderman ED, Honeyman AL. Evaluation of photodynamic therapy using a light-emitting diode lamp against Enterococcus faecalis in extracted human teeth. J Endod 2011;37:856-9.
Garcez AS, Rodriguez HM, Nunez SC, Sabino CP, Suzuki H. The use of optical fiber in endodontic photodynamic therapy. Is it really relevant? Lasers Med Sci 2013;28:79-85.
Upadya MH, Kishen A. Influence of bacterial growth modes on the susceptibility to light-activated disinfection. Int Endod J 2010;43:978-87.
George SK. Augmenting the antibiofilm efficacy of advanced noninvasive light activated disinfection with emulsified oxidizer and oxygen carrier. J Endod 2008;34:1119-23.
Pourhajibagher M, Bahador A. An in vivo evaluation of microbial diversity before and after the photo-activated disinfection in primary endodontic infections: Traditional phenotypic and molecular approaches. Photodiagn Photodynam Ther 2018;22:19-25.
Kishen AU, Tegos GP, Hamblin MR. Efflux pump inhibitor potentiates antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation of Enterococcus faecalis biofilm. Photochem Photobiol 2010;86:1343-9.
Bouillaguet SW, Zapata O, Campo M, Lange N, Schrenzel J. Production of reactive oxygen species from photosensitizers activated with visible light sources available in dental offices. Photomed Laser Surg 2010;28:519-25.
Foschi FF, Ruggiero K, Riahi R, Vera A, Doukas AG, Pagonis TC, et al. Photodynamic inactivation of Enterococcus faecalis in dental root canals in vitro. Lasers Surg Med 2007;39:782-7.
Samiei MS, Abdollahi AA, Eskandarinezhad M, Negahdari R, Pakseresht Z. The antibacterial efficacy of photo-activated disinfection, chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite in infected root canals: An in vitro study. Iran Endod J 2016;11:179.
Bolhari BP, Bazarjani F, Chiniforush N, Rad MR, Pirmoazen S, Bahador A. Ex vivo assessment of synergic effect of chlorhexidine for enhancing antimicrobial photodynamic therapy efficiency on expression patterns of biofilm-associated genes of Enterococcus faecalis. Photodiagn Photodynam Ther 2018;22:227-32.
Shrestha AC, Kishen A. Photo activated polycationic bioactive chitosan nanoparticles inactivate bacterial endotoxins. J Endod 2015;41:686-91.
George SK. Photo physical, photochemical, and photo biological characterization of methylene blue formulations for light-activated root canal disinfection. J Biomed Opt 2007;12:034029.
Masuda YS, Horiike M, Kadokura H, Yamasaki T, Klokkevold PR, Takei HH, et al. Photodynamic therapy with pyoktanin blue and diode laser for elimination of Enterococcus faecalis. In Vivo 2018;32:707-12.