Miswak as an Alternative Treatment Modality in Medicine and Dentistry: A review
Herbal chewing sticks, commonly known as Miswak, are among the ancient and traditional oral hygiene aids. It is considered as â€œNatureâ€™s little toothbrushâ€ as it is a popular chewing stick throughout Indian subcontinent. Nowadays, because of low cost, free availability, unique chemical composition, and spiritual beliefs, miswak is being used worldwide.Â It also serves as a natural toothpaste with antibacterial, anti-caries, anti-periopathic disinfectant having anti-plaque and anti-fungal properties and it can be used effectively as a natural tool for teeth cleansing and as a natural analgesic for the disturbing toothache. This review gives a birdâ€™s eye view mainly on the biological activities of the miswak and plausible medicinal and dental applications.
2. Dahiya P, Kamal R, Luthra RP, Mishra R, Saini G. Miswak: A periodontist's perspective. J Ayurveda Integr Med 2012;3:184-7.
3. Almas K, Al - Lafi T. The natural toothbrush. World Health Forum 1995; 16:206-10.
4. G Bos. The miswÃ£k, an aspect of dental care in Islam. Med Hist 1993;37:68â€“79
5. Al Sadhan RI, Almas K. Miswak (chewing Stick): A Cultural And Scientific Heritage. Saud Dent J 1999;11:80-8.
6. El Mostehy MR, Al-Jassem AA, Al-Yassin IA et al. Miswak as an oral health device. Preliminary chemical and clinical evaluation. Hamdard 1983;26:41-50.
7. Al lafi T, Ababneh H. The effect of the extract of the miswak (chewing sticks) used in Jordan and the Middle East on oral bacteria. Int Dent J 1995;45:218-22.
8. Al-Bagieh NH, Idowu A, Salako NO. Effect of aqueous extract of miswak on the in vitro growth of Candida albicans. Microbios 1994;80:107-13.
9. Gazi MI, Davies TJ, al-Bagieh N, Cox SW. The immediate- and medium-term effects of Meswak on the composition of mixed saliva. J Clin Periodontol 1992;19:113-7.
10. Sulaiman MI, Al-Khateeb TL, Al â€“ Mazroa AA. The Analgesic Effect of Miswak. Saud Dent J 1996;8:87-91.
11. Monforte MT, Trovato A, Rossitto A, Forestieri AM, D'Aquino A, Miceli N et al. Anticonvulsant and sedative effects of Salvadora persica L. stem extracts. Phytother Res 2002;16:395-7.
12. Verma R, Purohit S, Bhandari A, Kumar B, P Priyanka. Salvadora Persica (Tooth brush Tree): A Review. J Pharm Res 2009;2:1809-12.
13. Mustafa MH, Abd-el Al MM, Abo-el Fadl KM. Reduced plaque formation by miswak-based mouthwash. Egypt Dent J 1987;33:375-384.
14. Sote EO. The relative effectiveness of chewing sticks and toothbrush on plaque removal. Afr Dent J 1987;1:48-53.
15. Sofrata AH, Claesson RL, LingstroÂ¨m PK, Gustafsson AK. Strong Antibacterial Effect of MiswakAgainst Oral Microorganisms Associated With Periodontitis and Caries. J Periodontol 2008;79:1474-9.
16. Al-Otaibi M, Al-Harthy M, Gustafsson A, Johansson A, Claesson R, Angmar-MÃ¥nsson B. Subgingival plaque microbiota in Saudi Arabians after use of miswak chewing stick and toothbrush. J Clin Periodontol 2004;31:1048-53.
17. Dutta S, Shaikh A. The Active Chemical Constituent And Biological Activity of Salvadora persica (Miswak ). International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Review and Research 2012;3;1-14.