Pharmacognostical, SEM and XRF profile of the leaves of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Moraceae) A contribution to combat the NTD
Keywords:Artocarpus heterophyllus, Moraceae, Microscopical evaluation, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometer (XRF)
Objective: To study in detail the micromorphology including Scanning Electron Microscopy and phyto, physicochemical analysis along with determination of trace elements by X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometer of the leaves of Artocarpus heterophyllus family-Moraceae which possesses various bioactive components and many traditional and pharmacologically validated uses in the treatment of many diseases including NTD.
Methods: Macroscopy, microscopy including SEM, physicochemical analysis, preliminary phytochemical screening, XRF and other WHO recommended parameters for standardizations were performed.
Results: Leaves are Obovate elliptic â€“ elliptic, alternate 5-25cm, Width 4-12 cm broad. Dark green with entire margin, cuspidate apex and symmetrical base with ridge and furrowed petiole. Microscopic evaluation revealed the presence of anomocytic stomata in lower epidermis and apostomatic upper epidermis, unicellular trichomes which are arised from thick walled circular, lignified ring of ten radially elongated epidermal rosette cells, xylem vessels, phloem, fibres. SEM of midrib showed many folded appearance.No diagnostic feature and new kind of microcostituents not previously recognized and apparently simple structure which may be extremly complex was observed. Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Identification of inorganic minerals of the leaves of A.heterophyllus by XRF showed the presence of minerals Calcium (39.4%), Potassium (29.6%), Magnesium (2.06%), Manganese (0.13%), chlorine (2%), Iron (0.99%).
Vein islet numbers, vein termination numbers, stomatal number, stomatal index and other physico chemical tests like ash values, loss on drying, extractive values were determined. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of sterols, tannins, proteins and aminoacids, flavonoids, terpenoids, mucilage, saponin, carbohydrates and absence of alkaloids, fixed and volatile oil.
Conclusion: The microscopic using histological identification, microscopic constants and other phyto, physico chemical examinations of the leaves of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. can be used as a rapid, inexpensive botanical identification technique and is useful in standardization, hence would be of immense value in authentication of the leaf as it proved to have wide panel of pharmacological and ethno medical use including prevention and treatment of NTD