• RABAB HASSAN ELSHAIKH Department of Hematology and Immunohematology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, University of Technology and Science, Sudan.
  • SANAA ELFATIH HUSSEIN Department of Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Gezira, Sudan.




Thalassemia, RBC indices, Hb electrophoresis, CBC, Iron, Sudan


Thalassemia is common inherited disorder among humans, and they represent a major public health problem in many areas of the world. The study aimed to the measurement of hematological characterization of beta-thalassemia in Sudanese patients. Blood samples from 61 beta-thalassemic patients were collected after written consent form obtained from all participants. The frequency of adults (>18 years) was 45 (73.8%) and children’s (<18 years) was 16 (26.2%); the frequency of male was 27 (44.3%) and 34 were female (55.7%). Hemoglobin estimation and red cell indices were carried out using the automatic blood cell counter Sysmex K × 21N. The results showed that Hb and RBCs indices were varied between mild to moderate and severe decreasing, hemoglobin concentration (Hb) with the mean value of 9.6 g/dL, with minimum value of 6.1 g/dl and maximum of 11.9 g/dl, while RBCs were increased in all patients, mean value 5.2 c/l, mean corpuscular volume mean was 58.9 fl, hematocrit was 30.4, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) 18.8 pg, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) was 31.7pg, and RDW was 18.8%. The method used for hemoglobin electrophoresis was capillary electrophoresis, Hb pattern shows increased HbA2 and HbF, the mean of HbA is 78.3%, HbF is 2.3%, and HbA2 is 6.5% with the min. value of 3.6% and max. of 12.2%. While the mean of serum iron was 82.75 μg/dl, 7 patients showed low level, 19 high level, and 35 were normal level. Comparison of hematological analysis (HbA2) in thalassemic patients coexisted with iron deficiency and without result was insignificant difference (p=0.645), this result disagrees with references that say iron deficiency masking HbA2. Nevertheless, the association between HbA2 and HbF revealed a statistically significant difference (p<0.013) and HbA2 with Hb was insignificant (p=0.260).


Firkin F, Chesterman C, Penington D, Rush B. De Gruchy’s Clinical Haematology in Medical Practice. 5th ed. London: Blackwell Publishing; 1989.

Thalassaemia International Federation. Guidelines to the Clinical Management of Thalassemia. (World Bank 2006, Report of a Joint WHO-March of Dime Meeting 2006). San Francisco: Thalassaemia International Federation; 2000.

Eleftheriou A, Angastiniotis M. Hematological Indices Most Commonly Found in Patients with Thalassemia, Hemoglobinopathesis B-Thalassemia Booklet, 1986, Report of a Joint WHO. Nicosia: Thalassemia International Federation; 1996.

Hoffbrand AV, Catovsky D, Edward GD. Postgraduate Haematology. 5th ed., Vol. 1. United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing; 2005. p. 85-103.

Sana E. Molecular Genetics of Beta Thalassaemia in Sudan. United Kingdom: Lambert Academic Publishing; 2013.

Thein SL. Pathophysiology of beta thalassemia--a guide to molecular therapies. Hematol Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2005; :31-7.

Thein SL. Genetic modifiers of the beta-haemoglobinopathies. BrJ Haematol 2008;141:357-66.

Cooley TB. Disorders of the blood. In: Brennemann’s Practice of Pediatrics. Hagerstown, MD: W.F. Prior Company Inc.; 1945.

Galanello R, Melis MA, Ruggeri R, Addis M, Scalas MT, Maccioni L, et al. Beta 0 thalassemia trait in Sardinia. Hemoglobin 1979;3:33-46.

Jameel T, Baig M, Ahmed L, Hussain MB, Alkhamaly M. Differentiation of beta thalassemia trait from iron deficiency anemia by hematological indices. Pak J Med Sci 2017;33:665-9.

Roth IL, Lachover B, Koren G, Levin C, Zalman L, Koren A. Detection of β-thalassemia carriers by red cell parameters obtained from automatic counters using mathematical formulas. Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis 2018;10:e2018008.

Abbas MY. Haematological parameters in Sudanese children with sickle cell disease. Am J Res Commun 2014;2:20-32.

Gireel MO, Elkarsani M, Munsour MM, El Taher HB. A screening of hemoglobinopathy in Bija tribes and other minor groups living in Port Sudan. J Med Lab Diagn 2014;5:35-40.

Origa R. Beta-thalassemia. In: Gene Reviews. Seattle, WA: University of Washington; 2018.

Weatherall DJ. Genetic disorder of hemoglobin. In: Postgraduate Haematology. 5th ed. 1999. p. 91-119.

Whipple CH, Bradford WL. Mediterranean disease-thalassemia (erythroblastic anemia of cooley); associated pigment abnormalities stimulating hemochromatosis. J Pediatric 1936;9:279-31.

Yaish HM, Arceci RJ. Pediatric Thalassemia. Vol. 9. Sunnyvale, CA: Intermedia.Net, Inc.; 2009. p. 29.

Piomelli S, Loew T. Management of thalassemia major. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 1999;5:557-69.

Sebia SR. Department Parc Technologique Leonard de Vinci CP. Lisses, Evry, France: Vinci SA; .



How to Cite

ELSHAIKH, R. H., & HUSSEIN, S. E. (2020). HEMATOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF BETA-THALASSEMIA IN SUDANESE PATIENTS. Innovare Journal of Medical Sciences, 8(3), 5–7. https://doi.org/10.22159/ijms.2020.v8i3.36436



Original Article(s)