ACCESS TO HANDHYGIENE IN SOUTH EAST ASIA IN RELATION TO COVID-19: A REVIEW
Keywords:Hand Washing, SARS CoV-2, Soap and Water, Sanitation
The present review aims at gathering refocus on access to handwashing in South East Asia. It is because, here nearly half of the households, schools and about one fourth of the health care centers lack the basic handwashing facility and that too at the time when about one third of global new COVID-19 positive cases are getting reported from this region these days. Data on access to, handwashing device having soap and water availability, in South Asia is mainly based on the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF JMP) Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WHO/UNICEF JMP 2020). In addition various relevant research and review papers were reviewed using the key words such as handwashing, South East Asia, Hand hygiene, and COVID-19. There is a high need to reaccess the factor of hand hygiene in South East Asia in relation to COVID-19 for the control of the present pandemic and other such challenges, particularly in South East Asia.
Beiu C, Mihai M, Popa L, Cima L, Popescu MN. Frequent hand washing for COVID-19 prevention can cause hand dermatitis: Management tips. Cureus 2020;12:e7506.
Głabska D, Skolmowska D, Guzek D. Population-based study of the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on hand hygiene behaviors-polish adolescents’ COVID-19 experience (PLACE-19) study. Sustainability 2020;12:4930.
Singhal T. A review of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Indian J Pediatr 2020;87:281-6.
World Health Organization. Modes of Transmission of Virus Causing COVID-19: Implications for IPC Precaution Recommendations. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2020.
Chan JF, Yuan S, Kok KH, To KK, Chu H, Yang J, et al. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: A study of a family cluster. Lancet 2020;395:514-23.
Ong SW, Tan YK, Chia PY, Lee TH, Ng OT, Wong MS, et al. Air, surface environmental, and personal protective equipment contamination by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) from a symptomatic patient. JAMA 2020;323:1610-2.
Wu Y, Chen C, Chan Y. The outbreak of COVID-19: An overview. J Chin Med Assoc 2020;83:217-20.
Doremalen NV, Bushmaker T, Morris H, Holbrook MG, Gamble A, Williamson BN, et al. Aerosol and surface stability of SARS-CoV-2 as compared with SARS-CoV-1. N Engl J Med 2020;382:1564-7.
Bai Y, Yao L, Wei T, Tian F, Jin DY, Chen L, et al. Presumed asymptomatic carrier transmission of COVID 19. N Engl J Med 2020;323:1406-7.
Lirong Z, Feng R, Mingxing H, Lijun L, Huitao H, Zhongsi H, et al. SARS-CoV-2 viral load in upper respiratory specimens of infected patients. N Engl J Med 2020;382:1177-9.
Rothe C, Schunk M, Sothmann P, Bretzel G, Froeschl G, Wallrauch C, et al. Transmission of 2019-nCOV infection from an asymptomatic contact in Germany. N Engl J Med 2020;382:970-1.
World Health Organization. Improve Hand Hygiene Practices Widely to Help Prevent the Transmission of the COVID-19. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2020.
Roberts L, Jorm L, Patel M, Smith W, Douglas RM, McGilchrist C. Effect of infection control measures on the frequency of diarrheal episodes in child care: A randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics 2000;105:743-6.
Bowen A, Ma H, Jianming O, Billhimer W, Long T, Mintz E, et al. A cluster-randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of a hand washing-promotion program in Chinese primary schools. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2007;76:1166-73.
Ejemot RI, Ehiri JE, Meremikwu MM, Critchley JA. Hand washing for preventing diarrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012;1:CD004265.
Kumar S, Loughnan L, Luyendijk R, Hernandez O, Weinger M, Arnold F, et al. Handwashing in 51 countries: Analysis of proxy measures of handwashing behavior in multiple indicator cluster surveys and demographic and health surveys, 2010-2013. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017;97:447-59.
Mukherjee S. Factors Influencing Access to Basic Handwashing Facilities in Developing Countries (No. 99607). Germany: University Library of Munich; 2020.
UNICEF. Water and Sanitation: The Ripple Effect. United States: UNICEF; 2017. p. 1-16. Available from: https://www.unicef.org/wash/files/Climate_change_WASH_Brief.pdf. [Last accessed on 2020 Apr 12].
Geall S, Al’Afghani MM. The right to safe water in Southeast Asia. Available from: https://www.cdn.chinadialogue.net/content/uploads/2020/07/07131910/The-right-to-safe-water-in-Southeast-Asia_2020-01_28_web.pdf.
COVID-19: Water and Sanitation-related Information. Available from: https://www.unwater.org/covid-19-water-and-sanitation-related-information.
WHO/UNICEF JMP (WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene). 2020. Available from: https://www.washdata.org. [Last accessed on 2020 Mar 25].
WHO, UNICEF. 2017. Progresson Drinking Water, Sanitationand Hygiene. 2017 Update and SDG Baselines. Available from: https://www.unicef.org/publications/files/Progress_on_Drinking_Water_Sanitation_and_Hygiene_2017.pdf. [Last accessed on 2020 May 11].
WHO/UNICEFJMP (WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply, Sanitationand Hygiene); 2020. Available from: https://www.washdata.org. [Last accessed 2020 Mar 25].
Corey BL, Mascola JR, Fauci AS, Collins FS. A strategic approach to COVID-19 vaccine R&D. Science 2020;368:948-50.
Cirrincione L, Plescia F, Ledda C, Rapisarda V, Martorana D, Moldovan RE, et al. COVID-19 pandemic: Prevention and protection measures to be adopted at the workplace. Sustainability 2020;12:3603.
World Health Organization. WHO Announces COVID-19 Outbreak a Pandemic. Available from: http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/health-emergencies/coronavirus-covid-19/news/news/2020/3/who-announces-covid-19-outbreak-a-pandemic. [Last accessed on 2020 May 14].
United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund. Everything You Need to Know about Washing Your Hands to Protect Against Coronavirus (COVID-19). Available from: https://www.unicef.org/coronavirus/everything-you-need-know-about-washing-yourhandsprotect-against-coronavirus-covid-19. [Last accessed on 2020 May 14].
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. When and How to Wash Your Hands. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/handwashing/when-how-handwashing.html. [Last accessed on 2020 May 14].
Kampf G. Efficacy of ethanol against viruses in hand disinfection. J Hosp Infect 2018;98:331-8.
Brauer M, Zhao JT, Bennitt FB, Stanaway JD. Global access to handwashing: Implications for COVID-19 control in low-income countries. Environ Health Perspect 2020;128:057005.
Asim M, Sathian B, van Teijlingen E, Mekkodathil A, Subramanya SH, Simkhada P. COVID-19 pandemic: Public health implications in Nepal. Nepal J Epidemiol 2020;10:817-20.
Rashid SF, Theobald S, Ozano K. Towards a socially just model: Balancing hunger and response to the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. BMJ Global Health 2020;5:e002715.
Zar HJ, Dawa J, Fischer GB, Castro-Rodriguez JA. Challenges of COVID-19 in children in low-and middle-income countries. Paediatr Respir Rev 2020;35:70-4.
World Health Organization. United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF): Global Baseline Report 2018. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018.
Paul A, Chatterjee S, Bairagi N. Prediction on Covid-19 epidemic for different countries: focusing on South Asia under various precautionary measures. MedRxiv 2020; Jan 1.
Paital B, Das K, Parida SK. Inter nation social lockdown versus medical care against COVID-19, a mild environmental insight with special reference to India. Sci Total Environ 2020;728:138914.
India and Coronavirus: Lack of Access to Handwashing Facilities Among Poor Makes Fight Even Harder. Available from: https://www.horizon.documentation.ird.fr/exl-doc/pleins_textes/divers20-05/010077646.pdf. [Last accessed on 2020 Apr 01].
Amin MR, Sharif M, Faiz MA. The first family cluster of COVID-19 in Bangladesh enigma in developing country. J Bangladesh Coll Physicians Surg 2020;38:141-4.
Patunru AA. Access to safe drinking water and sanitation in Indonesia. Asia Pac Pol Stud 2015;2:234-44.
Purnama SG, Susanna D. Hygiene and sanitation challenge for COVID-19 prevention in Indonesia. Kesmas Natl Public Health J 2020;1:6-13.
Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2018. Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia; 2018.
Hirai M, Graham JP, Mattson KD, Kelsey A, Mukherji S, Cronin AA. Exploring determinants of handwashing with soap in Indonesia: A quantitative analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2016;13:868.