PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS AND ORGAN WEIGHT EFFECTS OF MUCUNA SLOANEI (FABACEAE) IN ALBINO RATS (RATTUS NOVERGICUS)
This research was done to assess the phytochemical composition and possible effects for 28 days oral administration of aqueous crude seed extracts of Mucuna sloanei on organ weights of normal albino rats at weekly intervals. Forty eight adult male albino rats weighing between 150 to 250 g were divided into three treatment groups and one control group of twelve rats each. Each group consists of three replicates of four rats per replicate. The treatment groups were administered orally, 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of aqueous extracts of M. sloanei seed respectively. The results of the phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract showed that crude extracts of M. sloanei seed has flavonoids composition of (5.500Â±0.115 ), cyanide (0.054Â±0.001), alkaloids (1.000Â±0.058), tannins (0.540Â±0.006), phytates (14.50Â±0.058), saponins (6.100Â±0.058) and phenols (1.800Â±0.068) thus, having phytates as the most abundant and cyanide the least. There was no overall dose dependent and significant difference (p>0.05) observed in the organ weights in all the weeks when compared with the control, except the spleen, which showed a significant decrease (P<0.05) at 100 mg/kg at week one. Also, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the duration of treatments in the organ weights of kidney and lungs, but, a significant increase (p<0.05) was observed in the liver at week 4 when compared with week 1 and 2 at dose levels of 100 mg/kg. Similarly, there was an observed significant decrease (P<0.05) in the heart and spleen in 100 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg treated rats respectively when compared with the control. In conclusion, the aqueous extracts of the plant seems to have antimalarial, antioxidant, antihypertensive, hypocholesterolmic and anticarcinogenic effects owing to presence of such phytochemicals as alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, phytate, phenol and saponins. It has also shown that the plant extract did not cause inflammation or constriction at the cellular level of the organs. Thus, the M. sloanei seed is good for consumption.
Key words: Phytochemical composition, Organ weight, Aqueous extract, Mucuna sloanei, Albino rats