CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY: THE CHARACTERISTICS OF KOSOVO AND RWANDA VICTIMS
Keywords:Forensic Anthropology Population Data, Rwanda, Kosovo, genocide, dental analysis, war crime
Objective: Crimes occurred in Rwanda (1994) and Kosovo (1999) have been considered as genocides. Our main objective was to describe the difference between the crimes committed in Kosovo and Rwanda based on the victims found in each area according to their age, gender, and way to die.
Methods: Bodies were found in those places selected by field observers. We have included all human and material elements that were found near the bodies in Rwanda and Kosovo. We also have taken photographs to the lesions in some cases to document our findings. As a criterion for inclusion, it was necessary to be able to identify the form of death and the ethnic group (in Rwanda, Tutsi or moderate Hutus, and in Kosovo, the Kosovar Albanian victims). All samples that did not meet the requirements to determine personal characteristics were excluded.
Results: A total of 1044 bodies were individually studied, 857 from Rwanda and 187 from Kosovo. Our results reveal differences in the injuries presented in most Rwandan victims, were most were due to machetes or canes, and those in Kosovo where most were due to firearms or explosions. Most of the bodies studied in Rwanda belong to the Tutsi ethnic group and were not buried. However, the majority of the bodies found in Kosovo were individually buried.
Conclusions: We conclude that there are differences in the studied victims attending to their characteristic and their wounds in Kosovo and Rwanda.
Verwimp P. Death and survival during the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. Popul Stud (Camb) 2004;58:233-45.
Spiegel PB, Salama P. War and mortality in Kosovo, 1998-99: An epidemiological testimony. Lancet 2000;355:2204-9.
Blum R, Stanton GH, Sagi S, Richter ED. Ethnic cleansing bleaches the atrocities of genocide. Eur J Public Health 2008;18:204-9.
Nolla C. The development of permanent teeth. J Dent Child 1960;27:254-66.
Hiernaux J. Physical anthropolog y of the living populations of Sub-Suharan Africa. Annu Rev Anthropol 1976;5:149-68.
Eytan A, Munyandamutsa N, Nkubamugisha PM, Gex-Fabry M. Long-term mental health outcome in post-conflict settings: Similarities and differences between Kosovo and Rwanda. Int J Soc Psychiatry 2015;61:363-72.
Manterola C, Pineda V, Vial M, Grande L. How should the results of a research study be presented? II. The manuscript and the publication process. Cir Esp 2007;81:70-7.
Lehti M. The background of national myth in the ethnic genocide in Kosovo. Hist Aikak 1999;97:218-24.
Salama P, Spiegel P, van Dyke M, Phelps L, Wilkinson C. Mental health and nutritional status among the adult Serbian minority in Kosovo. JAMA 2000;284:578-84.
Iacopino V, Frank MW, Bauer HM, Keller AS, Fink SL, Ford D, et al. A population-based assessment of human rights abuses committed against ethnic Albanian refugees from Kosovo. Am J Public Health 2001;91:2013-8.