• SITI SALWANI MEOR AHMAD Putra Business School, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
  • NOOR AZMAN ALI School of Business and Economics, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.


Transportation is acknowledged as one of the major sources of greenhouse gasses and air pollution. Thus, promoting cars with high efficiency in fuel consumption and reduce emission is required to replace conventional cars. In that case, encouraging consumer to purchase green car by identifying factors that affect green car purchase intention among Malaysian is important. This study provides some preliminary evidence on determinants of hybrid cars purchase intentionin Malaysia and green product attachment as a mediator.Hence, the validity and reliability of instrument were examined via pretest and a pilot test. The data normality also waschecked by using SPSS version 21. The findings suggest that the Green Trust and Green Product Attachment are the most significant factors on the influence toward Green Purchase Intention of hybrid cars in terms of reliability score.

Keywords: Green product attachment, Green purchase intention, Hybrid cars


1. Subramani SS. Application of air pollution tolerance index in assessing the air quality. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:216-21.
2. Afroz R, Masud MM, Akhtar R, Islam MA, Duasa JB. Consumer purchase intention towards environmentally friendly vehicles: An empirical investigation in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2015;22:16153-63.
3. Aini MS, Chan SC, Syuhaily O. Predictors of technical adoption and behavioural change to transport energy-saving measures in response to climate change. Energy Pol 2013;61:1055-62.
4. Hassan SH. The role of Islamic values on green purchase intention. J Islam Mark 2014;5:379-95.
5. Rashid NR. Awareness of eco-label in Malaysia’ s green marketing initiative. Int J Bus Manag 2009;4:132-41.
6. Chen YS, Chang CH. Enhance green purchase intentions: The roles of green perceived value, green perceived risk, and green trust. ManagDecis 2012;50:502-20.
7. Ajzen I. The theory of planned behavior. Organ Behav Hum Decis Process 1991;50:179-211.
8. Ali A, Khan AA, Ahmed I, Shahzad W. Determinants of Pakistani consumers’ green purchase behavior : Some insights from a developing country. Int J Bus Soc Sci Res 2011;2:217-26.
9. Zheng Y, Chi T. Factors influencing purchase intention towards environmentally friendly apparel: An empirical study of US consumers. Int J Fash Des Technol Educ 2014;8:68-77.
10. Fryxell GE, Lo CW. The influence of environmental knowledge and values on managerial behaviours on behalf of the environment: An empirical examination of managers in China. J Bus Ethics 2003;46:45-69.
11. Katu VM, Mat NK. The mediating effects of green trust and perceived behavioral control on the direct determinants of intention to purchase green products in Nigeria. Med J Soc Sci 2015;6:256-65.
12. Chen YS. The drivers of green brand equity: Green brand image, green satisfaction, and green trust. J Bus Ethics 2010;93:307-19.
13. Joshi Y, Rahman Z. Factors affecting green purchase behaviour and future research directions. Int Strateg Manag Rev 2015;3:128-43.
14. Aschemann-Witzel J, Zielke S. Can’t buy me green? A review of consumer perceptions of and behavior toward the price of organic food. J Consum Aff 2017;51:211-51.
15. Koschate-Fischer N, Stefan I, Hoyer WD. Willingness to pay for cause-related marketing: The impact of donation amount and moderating effects. J Mark Res 2012;49:910-27.
16. Deutsch M, Gerard HB. A study of normative and informational social influences upon individual judgement. J Abnorm Soc Psychol 1955;51:629-36.
17. Yalew YT. The role of social support and some selected socio-demographic variables in promoting the identity achievement of young adults: The case of students in gondor college of teacher education. Innovare J Soc Sci 2018;5:1-7.
18. Ozaki R. Adopting sustainable innovation: What makes consumers sign up to green electricity? Bus Strat Environ 2011;20:1-17.
19. Gupta S, Ogden DT. To buy or not to buy? A social dilemma perspective on green buying. J Consum Mark 2009;26:378-93.
20. Schifferstein HN, Zwartkruis-Pelgrim EP. Consumer-product attachment : Measurement and design implications. Int J Des 2008;2:1-13.
21. Koshkaki ER. The role of product and brand emotion in purchase behavior, a study in Iranian home appliance context. J Asia Bus 2014;8:233-48.
22. Desmet PM, Hekkert PP. The basis of product emotions. In: Green W, Jordan P, editors Pleasure with Products: Beyond Usability. London: Taylor & Francis; 2002. p. 60-8.
23. Bowlby J. The Making and Breaking of Affectional Bonds. London: Tavistock; 1979.
24. Kaufmann HR, Petrovici DA, Filho CG, Ayres A. Identifying moderators of brand attachment for driving customer purchase intention of original vs counterfeits of luxury brands. J Bus Res 2016;69:5735-47.
25. Badrinarayanan V, Becerra EP. Shoppers’ attachment with retail stores: Antecedents and impact on patronage intentions. J Retail Consum Serv 2019;50:371-8.
26. Hazzi OA, Maldaon IS. A pilot study : Vital methodological issues. Bus Theory Pract 2015;16:53-62.
27. Memon MA, Ting H, Ramayah T, Chuah F, Cheah JH. A review of the methodological misconceptions and guidelines related to the application of structural equation modeling: A malaysian scenario. J Appl Struct Equ Mod 2017;1:1-13.
28. Malhotra NK, Birks DF. Marketing Research: An Applied Approach. United Kingdom: Pearson Education Limited; 2006.
29. Yavetz B, Goldman D, Pe’er S. Environmental literacy of pre-service teachers in Israel: A comparison between students at the onset and end of their studies. Environ Educ Res 2009;15:393-415.
30. Mostafa MM. Antecedents of Egyptian consumers’ green purchase intentions. J Int Consum Mark 2006;19:97-126.
31. Carmi N, Arnon S, Orion N. Transforming environmental knowledge into behavior : The mediating role of environmental emotions. J Environ Educ 2015;46:183-201.
32. Lee K. Opportunities for green marketing: Young consumers. Mark Intell Plan 2008;26:573-86.
33. Garg A. Green marketing for sustainable development: An industry perspective. Sustain Dev 2015;23:301-16.
34. Mugge R, Schifferstein HN, Schoormans JP. Product attachment and satisfaction: Understanding consumers’ post-purchase behavior. J Consum Mark 2010;27:271-82.
35. Rizwan M, Asif RM, Hussain S, Asghar M, Hassan M, Javeed U. Future of green products in Pakistan: An empirical study about green purchase intentions. Asian J Empir Res 2013;3:91-207.
36. Kabadayi ET, Dursun I, Alan AK, Tuger AT. Green purchase intention of young Turkish consumers: Effects of consumer’s guilt, self-monitoring and perceived consumer effectiveness. Proc Soc Behav Sci 2015;207:165-74.
37. Curran PJ, West SG, Finch JF. The robustness of test statistics to nonnormality and specification errors in confirmatory factor analysis. Psychol Methods 1996;1:16-29.
38. Kline RB. Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling. New York: Guilford Press; 2010.
39. Pallant J. SPSS Survival Manual: A Step By Guide To Data Analysis Using SPSS For Windows (version 12). Sydney: Allen & Unwin; 2005.
40. George D, Mallery P. SPSS For Windows Step By Step: A Simple Guide And Reference. Boston: Pearson Education; 2003.
41. Kumar M, Talib SA, Ramayah T. Business Research Methods. Selangor, Malaysia: Oxford University Press; 2013.
42. Thabane L, Ma J, Chu R, Cheng J, Ismaila A, Rios LP, et al. A tutorial on pilot studies : The what, why and how. BMC Med Res Methodol 2010;10:1-10.
43. Jayaraman, Haron H, Feng CK, Yusof N, Agbola F. Determinants of the intention to use natural gas vehicle (ngv) as an alternative to a petrol car: The case of Malaysia. J Sustain Sci Manag 2015;10:36-49.
44. Al Mamun A, Fazal SA, Ahmad G, Yaacob MR, Mohamad MR. Willingness to pay for environmentally friendly products among low-income households along coastal peninsular Malaysia. Sustainability 2018;10:1316.
45. Joshi N, Rao PS. Environment friendly car: Challenges ahead in India. Glob J Manage Bus Res Interdiscip 2013;13:10-9.
31 Views | 24 Downloads
How to Cite
Review Article(s)