• Binit Lamichhane Lumbini Medical College and Teaching Hospital Pvt. Ltd



Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance in the current centuries has been the cause of lack of treatment of even common diseases. Although there are various antibiotics that can be used to combat Gram negative infection, resistant strains have subsequently emerged giving rise to life threatening superbugs.

Objective: The aim of the present study is to establish the incidence of gram negative bacteria in clinical specimens and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern.

Methodology: In the present study Gram negative pathogens in clinical specimens were considered to determine prevailing antibiotic sensitivity pattern. Isolates were identified and screened for 13 different antibiotic susceptibility pattern by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method.

Result: A total of 1673 clinical samples were studied in 8 months. Of the total samples 531 (31.74%) were significant growth and 344 gram negative. E. coli (179/344), Pseudomonas (87/344), Proteus (31/344), Klebsiella (28/344), Salmonella (12/344) and Enterobacter (7/344) were isolated. E coli was found to be most sensitive to cephalosporins and tetracycline and most resistant to quinolones, fluroquinolones and sulphonamides. For Pseudomonas Amikacin and Ampicillin were most effective and Nalidixic acid was least effective. 114 of the isolates were found to be Multi Drug Resistant with E. coli 45.25% (81/179), Klebsiella 50% (14/28), Proteus 35.48% (11/31), Pseudomonas 2.3% (2/87), Salmonella 8.3% (1/12) and Enterobacter 71.42% (5/7).

Conclusion: Among all the tested antibiotics cephalosporins and fluroquinolones were most effective in compare to others.


Keywords: Gram Negative, Multi Drug Resistant, Antimicrobial Resistance

Author Biography

Binit Lamichhane, Lumbini Medical College and Teaching Hospital Pvt. Ltd
Lecturer, Department of Microbiology


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How to Cite
Lamichhane, B. “ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE PATTERNS OF GRAM NEGATIVE ISOLATES IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL OF NEPAL”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 7, no. 3, July 2014, pp. 30-33,
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