EVALUATION OF APOLIPOPROTEIN-B LEVELS IN DYSGLYCEMIA
Keywords:Dysglycemia, Impaired Fasting Glucose, apolipoprotein-B
Lifestyle modifications have resulted in an increased prevalence of dysglycemia in young individuals. Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) and Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) represent intermediate stages of abnormal glucose regulation that exists between normal glucose homeostasis and diabetes. IFG is considered as a potential indicator of preventive importance for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The plasma concentration of apolipoprotein B (apo B) indicates the cumulative number of atherogenic particles. The study group included 50 patients with IFG and 50 euglycemic subjects in the age group of 20-35 years. Apo-B and lipid profile measurements were carried out. As compared to the euglycemic group, in the dysglycemic group the Body Mass Index (BMI) and apo-B levels were significantly elevated while there was no significant difference in Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. The inclusion of apo-B in atherogenic risk assessment will be beneficial for early identification and intervention strategies.
Keywords: Dysglycemia, Impaired Fasting Glucose, apolipoprotein-B.
American Diabetes Association: Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 31 (Suppl. 1) 2008; S55-S60,.
David M Nathan MD, Mayer B. Davidson MD, Ralph A. Defronzo MD, Robert J. Heine MD, Robert R. Henry MD, Richard Pratley MD, Bernard Zinman MD. Impaired fasting glucose and Impaired glucose tolerance. Diabetes care 2007;vol 30, no 3 .
Genuth S, Alberti KG, Bennett P, Buse J, Defronzo R, Hahn R, Kitzmiller J, Knowler WC, Lebovitz H, Lenmark A, Nathan D, Palmer J, Rizza R, Saudek C, Shaw J, Steffes M, Stern M, Tuomilehto J, Zimmet P: Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus: follow-up report on the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 2003; 26: 3160-3167.
Hertzel C. Gerstein, Pasqualina Santaguida, Parminder Raina, Katherine M. Morrison, Cynthia Balion, Dereck Hunt, Hossein Yazdi, Lynda Booker. Annual incidence and relative risk of diabetes in people with various categories of Dysglycemia: A systematic overview of meta-analysis of prospective studies. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 2007; 78 305-312.
Nichols GA, Hillier TA, Brown JB: Progression from newly acquired impaired fasting glucose to type 2 diabetes. Diabetes care 2007; 30(2):228-233.
De Vegt F, Dekker JM, Jager A, Hienkens E, Kostense PJ, Stewhouwer CD, Nijpel G, Bouter LM, Heine RJ: Relation of impaired fasting and postload glucose with incident type 2 diabetes in a Dutch population: the Hoorn Study. JAMA 2001; 285:2109-2113.
Levitzky YS, Pencina MJ Dâ€™Agostina RB, Meigs JB, Murabito JM, Vasan RS, Fox CS: Impact of impaired fasting glucose on cardiovascular disease: the Framingham Heart Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008; 51(3):264-270.
Ambili remesh, Obesity: Pathophysiology and Management-A Pharmacological Perspective. AJPCR 2013; 6(1):11-13.
Anne L.Peters, MD. Clinical Relevance of Non-HDL Cholesterol in patients with Diabetes. Clinical Diabetes 2008; 26;3-7.
Koba S, Yokoya Y, Hirano T, Ito Y, Ban Y, Tsunoda F : Small LDL-C is superior to LDL-C for determing severe coronary atherosclerosis. J Atheroscler Thromb 2008; 15(5):250-60.
Marcovina S, Packard CJ. Measurement and meaning of apolipoprotein A1 and apolipoprotein B plasma levels. J Intern Med 2006; 259:437-446.
Lyons TJ, Jenkins AJ. Glycation, oxidation, and lipoxidation in the development of the complications of diabetes: a carbonyl stress hypothesis. Diabetes Rev. 1997; 5:365-391.
Lyons TJ, Jenkins AJ, Zheng D, et al. Diabetic retinopathy and serum lipoprotein subclasses in the DCCT/EDIC cohort. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2004; 45:910-918.
Davidson MH. Apolipoprotein measurements: is more widespread use clinically indicated? Clin Cardiol 2009; 32:482-486.
Countinho M, Gerstein HC, Wang Y, Yusuf S: The relationship between glucose and incident cardiovascular events: a metaregression analysis of published data from 20 studies of 95, 783 individuals followed for 12.4 years. Diabetes Care 1999; 22:233-240.
Levitan EB, Song Y, Ford ES, Liu S: Is non-diabetic hyperglycaemia a risk factor for cardiovascular disease? A Meta-analysis of prospective studies. Arch Intern Med 2004; 164:2147-2155,.
DECODE Study Group, on behalf of the European Diabetes Epidemiology Group: Glucose tolerance and cardiovascular mortality: comparison of fasting and 2-hour diagnostic criteria. Arch Intern Med 2001; 161: 397-405.
DECODE Study Group, on behalf of the European Diabetes Epidemiology Group: Is the current definition for diabetes relevant to mortality risk from all causes and cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular diseases? Diabetes Care 2003; 26:688-696.
Barzilay JI, Spiekerman CF, Wahl PW, Kuller LH, Cushman M, Furgerg CD, Dobs A, Polak JF, Savage PJ: Cardiovascular disease in older adults with glucose disorders: comparison of American Diabetes Association criteria for diabetes mellitus with WHO criteria. Lancet 1999; 354:622-625.
Balkau B, Forhan A, Eschawege E: Two hour plasma glucose is not unequivocally predictive for early death in men with impaired fasting glucose: more results from Paris Prospective Study. Diabetologia 2002; 45:1224-1230.
Balkau B, Hu G, Qiao Q, Tuomilehto J, Borsh-Johnsen K, Pyorala K, DECODE Study Group, European Diabetes Epidemiology Group: Prediction of the risk of cardiovascular mortality using a score that includes glucose as a risk factor: the DECODE Study. Diabetologia 2004; 47:2118-2128.
Stern MP, Fatehi P, Williams K, Haffner SM : Predicting future cardiovascular disease : do we need the oral glucose tolerance test? Diabetes Care 2002; 25:1851-1856.
Gabir MM, Hanson RL, Dabetea D, Imperatore G, Roumain J, Bennett PH, Knowler WWC : Plasma glucose and prediction of microvascular disease and mortality : evaluation of 1997 American Diabetes Association and 1999 WHO criteria for diagnosis of diabetes. Diabetes Care 2002; 23:1113-1118.
Meighs JB, Nathan DM, Dâ€™Agostino RB Sr, William PW: Fasting and post-challenge glycemia and cardiovascular disease risk: the Framingham Offspring Study. Diabetes Care 2002; 25: 1845-1850.
Tominaga M, Equchi H, Manaka H, Igarashi K, Kato T, Sekikawa A : Impaired glucose tolerance is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but not impaired fasting glucose: the Funagata Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care 1999; 22:920-924.
Yun Qian, Yudi Lin, Tiemei Zhang, Jianling Bai, Feng Chen, Yi Chang, Senlin Luo, Hongbing Shen. The characteristics of impaired fasting glucose associated with obesity and dyslipidaemia in a Chinese population. BMC Public Health 2010; 10:139.
Anthony Keech, David Colquhoun, James Best, Adrienne Kirby, R.John Simes, David Hunt, Wendy Hague, Elaine Beller, Manjula Arulchelvam, Jennifer Baker, Andrew Tonken. Secondary prevention of cardiovascular events with long term pravastatin in patients with diabetes or impaired fasting glucose. Diabetes Care October 2003; volume 26, no 10,.
Julie St-Pierre, Isabelle Lemieux, Marie-Claude Vohl, Patrice Perron, Gerald Tremblay, Jean-Pierre Despres, Daniel Gaudet. Contribution of abdominal obesity and
hypertriglyceridemia to impaired fasting glucose and coronary artery disease. The American journal of cardiology 2002; vol. 90 july 1,.
Countinho M, Gerstein HC, Wang Y, Yusuf S: The relationship between glucose and cardiovascular events : a metaregression analysis of published data from 20 studies of 95,783 individuals followed for 12.4 years. Diabetes Care 1999; 22:223-240.
Bjornholt JV, Erikssen G, Aaser E, Sandvik L, Nitter-Hauge S, Jervell J, Erikssen J, Thaulow E: Fasting blood glucose: an underestimated risk factor for cardiovascular death: results from a 22-year follow up study of healthy non-diabetic men. Diabetes Care 1999; 22: 45-49.
Kothandam hariprasath1, paturi umamaheswari1, samuel david wicket2. Hormone based therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus, AJPCR 2013; vol. 6 (1); 1-5.
Heinz Drexel MD, Stefan Aczel MD, Thomas Marte MD, Werner Benzer MD, Peter Langer, Willi Moll MD, Christopher H. Saely MD. Is atherosclerosis in diabetes and impaired fasting glucose driven by elevated or by decreased HDL cholesterol HDL Cholesterol? Diabetes Care, 2005; volume 28, number 1, LDL cholesterol.
Mudd JO, Borlaug BA, Johnston PV, Kral BG, Rouf R, Blumenthal RS, K witrovic PO Jr. Beyond low-density lipoprotein cholesterol : defining the role of low-density heterogenecity in coronary atery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007; 50:1735-1741.
Elovson J, Chatterton JE, Bell GT, Schumaker VN, Reuben MA, Puppione DL, Reeve JR, Jr, Young NL. Plasma very low density lipoproteins contain a single molecule of apolipoprotein B. J Lipid Res. 1988;29: 1461-1473.
Campos H, Khoo C, Sacks FM. Diurnal and acute patterns of post prandial apolipoprotein B-48 in VLDL, IDL and LDL from normolipidemic humans. Atherosclerosis .2005;181:345-351.
Seth S. Martin, Atif N. Qasim, Nehal N. Mehta, Megan Wolfe, Karen Terembula, Stanley Schwartz, Nayyar Iqbal, Mark Schutta, Roshanak Bagheri, Muredach P. Reilly. Apolipoprotein B but not LDL cholesterol is associated with coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetic whites. Diabetes, august 2009; vol 58,.
Mora S, Szklo M, Otvos JD, Greenland P, Psaty BM, Goff DC Jr, Oâ€™Leary DH, Saad MF, Tsai MY, Sharrett AR. LDL particle subclasses, LDL particle size, and carotid atherosclerosis in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atheroclerosis (MESA). Atherosclerosis 2007; 192:211-217.
Allan D. Sniderman, MD; Ken Williams, John H. Contois, Howard. M, Monroe, Matthew J. McQueen, MBChB, Jacquiline de Graaf, Curt D.Furberg. A meta-analysis of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B as Markers of cardiovascular risk. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes , May 2011.
Austin MA, King M-C, Vranizan KM, Krauss RM: Atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype: a proposed genetic marker for coronary heart disease risk. Circulation 1990; 82:495â€“506.
Walldius G, Jungner I, Holme I, Aastveit A, Kolar W, Steiner E. High apolipoprotein B, low apolipoprotein A-I, and improvement in the prediction of fatal myocardial infarction (AMORIS study): a prospective study. Lancet 2001; 358 : 2026â€“33.
Bhatnager D, Durrington PN. Measurement and clinical significance of apolipoproteins A-I and B. In: Rifai N, Warnick GR, Dominiczak MH, eds. Handbook of Lipoprotein Testing, 2nd edn. Washington, DC: AACC Press, 2000; 287â€“310.
Durrington PN. Can measurement of apolipoprotein B replace the lipid profile in the follow-up of patients with lipoprotein disorders? Clin Chem 2002; 48: 401â€“2.
How to Cite
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.