DIETARY SALT INTAKE: HISTORY, ASSESSMENT, AND BENEFIT IN HYPERTENSIVE TREATMENT

  • Sunitha Esther Raj Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
  • Lee Mei Tan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
  • Adyani Md Redzuan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

Abstract

ABSTRACT
Multiple lines of investigation including genetic, epidemiological, and interventional studies have demonstrated consistently a positive relationship
between salt intake, blood pressure (BP) increment, and cardiovascular consequences. In addition, it has been documented that excessive salt intake
can be attributed to various health complications such as asthma, osteoporosis, obesity, and gastric cancer. On the contrary, a reduction in salt intake
has been shown to reduce BP and improve health outcomes, although the evidence is not completely unequivocal. Despite this discrepancy, a lowsodium
diet
is widely
being recommended
to
all hypertensive
patients in
particular,
as evidence
against
its efficacy in
conjunction with optimum
hypertensive
treatment
is
well
established.
Determination
of
salt
intake
among hypertensive
patients is important
since dietary
salt
restriction
had

been
proven
to
improve
BP control
in conjunction with optimum pharmacological management.
Various
methods
have
been used to
estimate
sodium
intake
includes 24-hrs
urinary
sodium,
overnight
urinary sodium,
spot
urinary sodium/creatinine
ratio,
and dietary survey
methods. Reducing

population
salt
intake
has been proven
to
be beneficial, preventing
millions
of
deaths from
cardiovascular
disease
and
stroke,
and reducing
the burden

on
health
services.
Many
individual
countries around
the globe
have
already
taken
action against
reducing
population
salt
intake.
These strategies

were
either led by
government,
nongovernment
organizations,
or industry.
Keywords: Dietary sodium, Salt, Hypertension, Sodium measurement, Cost-effectiveness.

References

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How to Cite
Raj, S. E., L. M. Tan, and A. Md Redzuan. “DIETARY SALT INTAKE: HISTORY, ASSESSMENT, AND BENEFIT IN HYPERTENSIVE TREATMENT”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 9, no. 8, Oct. 2016, pp. 39-42, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2016.v9s2.13483.
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