Management of pain using transdermal patches
Transdermal delivery is a non-invasive route of Â Â drug administration through the skin surface that can deliver the drug at a predetermined rate across the dermis to achieve a local or systemic effect. ItÂ isÂ potentially used as an alternative to oral route of drugs and hypodermic injections. Analgesics are mostly used for various diseases as most of them are associated with severe or mild pain .The use of analgesics as a pain relief patch is now being used commonly. A transdermal analgesic or pain relief patch is a medicated adhesive patch used to relieve minor to severe pain. Currently, the patches are available for many Opioids , Non opioids analgesics. Local anesthetics Â and antianginal drugs. The drugs include Fentanyl, Buprenorphine ketoprofen, diclofenacepolamine , piroxicam , Capsaicin ,NitroglycerineÂ and Lignocaine . They are available as both matrix and reservoir patches. This review explores the various drugs used to manage pain and their route of administration in terms of frequency, complications and effectsÂ Â
Bajaj S, Whiteman A, Brandner B. Transdermal drug delivery in pain management. Br J Anaesth Educ 2011;11(2):39-43.
Tanner T, Marks R. Delivering drugs by the transdermal route: Review and comment. Skin Res Technol 2008;14(3):249-60.
Morgan TM, Reed BL, Finnin BC. Enhanced skin permeation of sex hormones with novel topical spray vehicles. J Pharm Sci 1998;87(10):1213-8.
Venkatraman S, Gale R. Skin adhesives and skin adhesion 1. Transdermal drug delivery systems. Biomaterials 1998;19(13):1119-36.
Wu J, Nyborg W, editors. Emerging Therapeutic Ultrasound. London: Imperial College Press; 2006.
Berner B, John VA. Pharmacokinetic characterization of transdermal delivery systems. Clin Pharm 1994;26:121-34.
Williams A. Transdermal and Topical Drug Delivery. London: Pharmaceutical Press; 2003.
Glenn GM, Kenney RT. Mass vaccination: Solutions in the skin. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2006;304:247-68.
Schaefer H, Redelmeier TE. Factors effecting percutaneous absorption.
In: Barrier S, editor. Principle of Percutaneous Absorption. Ch. 5. Basel: Publ Karger; 1996. p. 167-8.
George S, Roy A. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of osteoarthritis. A short review. J Pain Manage 2014;7(4):257-60.
Komatsu T, Sakurada T. Comparison of the efficacy and skin permeability of topical NSAID preparations used in Europe. Eur J Pharm Sci 2012;47(5):890-5.
Bronaugh RL, Maibach HI, editors. Percutaneous Absorption. 4th ed. New York: Marcel Dekker; 2005. p. 165-76, 24.
Massey T, Derry S, Moore RA, McQuay HJ. Topical NSAIDs for acute pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010;(6):CD007402.
Petersen B, Rovati S. Diclofenac epolamine (Flector) patch: Evidence for topical activity. Clin Drug Investig 2009;29(1):1-9.
MaziÃ¨res B. Topical ketoprofen patch. Drugs R D 2005;6(6):337-44.
Sweetman SC. Martindale the Complete Drug Reference. Chicago: The Pharmaceutical Press; 2009. p. 117-8.
Pavelka K, Loet XL, Bjorneboe O, Herrero-Beaumonf G, Richarz U. Benefits of transdermal fentanyl in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or with osteoarthritis of the knee or hip: An open label study to assess pain control. Curr Med Res Opin 2004;20:1967-77.
Department of Veterans Affairs, Department of Defense (US). VA/DoD. Clinical practice Guideline for the Management of Opioid Therapy for Chronic Pain. Version 1.0. Rockville; 2003.
FDA Public Health Advisory. Safety Warnings Regarding Use of Fentanyl Transdermal Skin Patches. Rockville, Maryland: Food and Drug Administration; 2005.
Rossi S. Australian Medicines Handbook. Adelaide: Australian Medicines Handbook Pty Ltd.; 2006.
Plosker GL. Buprenorphine 5, 10 and 20 Î¼g/h transdermal patch: A review of its use in the management of chronic non-malignant pain. Drugs 2011;71(18):2491-509.
Hans G, Robert D. Transdermal buprenorphine - A critical appraisal of its role in pain management. J Pain Res 2009;2:117-34.
Rowbotham MC, Davies PS, Verkempinck C, Galer BS. Lidocaine patch: Double-blind controlled study of a new treatment method for post-herpetic neuralgia. Pain 1996;65(1):39-44.
BMJ Group. Lidocaine plasters for postherpetic neuralgia? Drug Ther Bull 2008;46:14-6.
Versatis 5% medicated plaster, lidocaine 5% medicated plaster. Public Assessment Report. Grunenthal Limited; 2007.
Martindale W. In: Reynolds J, editor. The Extra Pharmacopoeia/Martindale. 32nd ed. London: The Pharmaceutical Press; 1999.
Backonja M, Wallace MS, Blonsky ER, Cutler BJ, Malan P Jr, Rauck R, et al. NGX-4010, a high-concentration capsaicin patch, for the treatment of post herpetic neuralgia: A randomized, double-blind study. NGX-4010 C116 Study Group Lancet Neurol 2008;7(12):1106-12.
Groninger H, Schisler RE. Topical capsaicin for neuropathic pain #255. J Palliat Med 2012;15(8):946-7.
Brunton LL, Lazo JS, Parker KL, editors. Goodman and Gilmanâ€™s the Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 11th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2006.
Cumpston M, Johnston RV, Wengier L, Buchbinder R. Topical glyceryl trinitrate for rotator cuff disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009;(3):CD006355.
Jorge LL, Feres CC, Teles VE. Topical preparations for pain relief: Efficacy and patient adherence. J Pain Res 2010;4:11-24.
Aronson JK, editor. Meylerâ€™s Side Effects of Drugs - The International Encyclopedia of Adverse Drug Reactions and Interactions. 15th ed. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Science; 2005.
How to Cite
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.