SHODHANA DECREASES NOOTROPIC ACTIVITY OF SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM
Objective: To evaluate the nootropic activity of methanolic extract of pre-shodhit and shodhit Semecarpus anacardium (SA) nuts and to observe the
effect of shodhana on nootropic activity of SA.
Methods: Spatial learning and working memory was considered for evaluation. The parameters used were spontaneous alternation behavior
(Y-maze), number of correct responses (radial maze), and transfer latency in day 1 (elevated plus maze). Scopolamine, an anticholinergic drug, was
used to induce cognitive deficit. % inhibition of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) was measured in vitro.
Results: Both pre-shodhit and shodhit drug reversed the scopolamine-induced a decrease in percentage spontaneous alternation behavior in Y-maze
and number of correct responses in radial maze. Scopolamine-induced increase in transfer latency in elevated plus maze was significantly decreased
by pre-shodhit drug only. Shodhit drug has no significant effect on transfer latency. Both pre-shodhit and shodhit drug showed dose-dependent
inhibition of AChE activity in vitro. Pre-shodhit drug showed a more nootropic activity than shodhit drug.
Conclusion: Methanolic extract of the nuts of S. anacardium possesses nootropic activity which may be attributed to inhibition of cholinesterase
activity. Shodhana of the nuts decreases nootropic activity.
Keywords: Semecarpus anacardium, Acetylcholine esterase, Shodhana, Nootropic.
1. Raut AK, Sawant NS, Badre AS, Amonkar AA, Vaidya DB. Bhallataka
(Semecarpus anacardium Linn) - A review. Indian J Trad Knowl
2. Ilanchezhian R, Acharya RN, Roshy JC, Shukla VJ. Impact of
Ayurvedic Shodhana (purificatory procedures) on Bhallataka fruits
(Semecarpus anacardium Linn) by measuring the anacardol content.
3. Vinutha B, Prashanth D, Salma K, Sreeja SL, Pratiti D, Padmaja R, et al.
Screening of selected Indian medicinal plants for acetylcholinesterase
inhibitory activity. J Ethnopharmacol 2007;109(2):359-63.
4. Farooq SM, Alla TR, Rao NV, Prasad K, Shalam K, Satyanarayana SA.
Study on CNS effect of nut milk extract of semecarpus anacardium.
5. Bhattacharya A, Naik MR, Agrawal D, Sahu PK, Kumar S, Mishra SS.
CNS depressant and muscle relaxant effect of ethanolic leaf extract
of Moringa oleifera on albino rats. Intern J Pharm Tech Res
6. Pal A, Nayak S, Sahu PK, Swain T. Piperine protects epilepsy associated
depression: A study on role of monoamines. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol
7. Pany SK, Pal A, Sahu PK. Neuroprotective effect of quercetin
in neurotoxicity induced rats: Role of neuroinflammation in
neurodegeneration. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2014;7(4):410-2.
8. Pal A, Sahu PK, Swain T, Juadi S. Effect of galanolactone on learning
and memory: A study on role of serotonin. Pharmacologyonline
9. Shahid M, Pillai KK, Vohora D. Reversal of phenytoin induced
impairment of spontaneous alteration by piracetam in mice: Involvement
of cholinergic system. Indian J Pharmacol 2004;36(1):20-4.
10. Eckerman DA, Gordon WA, Edwards JD, MacPhail RC, Gage MI.
Effects of scopolamine, pentobarbital, and amphetamine on radial
arm maze performance in the rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav
11. Goodrich-Hunsaker NJ, Hopkins RO. Spatial memory deficits in a
virtual radial arm maze in amnesic participants with hippocampal
damage. Behav Neurosci 2010;124(3):405-13.
12. Sharma AC, Kulkarni SK. Reversal of Scopolamine and Dizocilpine
induced memory dysfunction by angiotensin converting enzyme
inhibitors in rats & mice. Indian J Pharmacol 1992;24:147-53.
13. Ellman GL, Courtney KD, Andres V Jr, Feather-Stone RM. A new
and rapid colorimetric determination of acetylcholinesterase activity.
Biochem Pharmacol 1961;7:88-95.
14. Hasnat MA, Pervin M, Lim BO. Acetylcholineserase inhibition and in
vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of Ganoderma lucidum grown
on germinated brown rice. Molecules 2013;18: 6663-78.
15. Kulkarni SK. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. 3
New Delhi: Vallabh Prakashan; 1999. p. 172-89.
16. Douglas RJ, Isaacsoo RL. Spontaneous alternation and scopolamine.
Psychol Sci 1966;4:283-4.
17. Spencer DG Jr, Lal H. Effects of anticholinergic drugs on learning &
memory. Drug Dev Res 1983;3:489-502.
18. Hooper N, Fraser C, Stone TW. Effects of purine analogues on
spontaneous alternation in mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl)
19. Hughes RN. The value of spontaneous alternation behavior (SAB) as a
test of retention in pharmacological investigations of memory. Neurosci
Biobehav Rev 2004;28:497-505.
20. Madhavadas S, Subramanian S. Combination of Spirulina with
glycyrrhizin prevents cognitive dysfunction in aged obese rats. Indian J
21. Hao D, Yang L, Chen S, Tian Y, Wu S 916 MHz electromagnetic field
exposure affects rat behavior and hippocampal neuronal discharge.
Asian J Pharm Clin Res, Vol 9, Suppl. 2, 2016, 294-297
Mishra et al.
Neural Regen Res 2012;7:1488-92.
22. Achliya G, Barabde U, Wadodkar S, Dorle A. Effect of Brahmi Ghrita,
a polyherbal formulation on learning and memory paradigms in
experimental animals. Indian J Pharmacol 2004;36:159-62.
23. Sharma AC, Kulkarni SK. Evaluation of learning and memory
mechanisms employing elevated plus-maze in rats and mice. Prog
Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 1992;16:117-25.
24. Itoh J, Nabeshima T, Kameyama T. Utility of an elevated plusmaze
the evaluation of
25. Saini D, Dhingra AK, Chopra B, Parle M. Psychopharmacological
investigation of the nootropic potential of Trigonella foenum Linn in
mice. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2011;4:76-84.
26. Kulkarni PD, Ghaisas MM, Chivate ND, Sankpal PS. Memory
enhancing activity of Cissampelos pariera in mice. Int J Pharm Pharm
27. Kukkar MR, Saluja AK, Sachdeva PD, Kukkar RR. In vivo investigation
of the neuroprotective potential of Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn.
Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:64-6.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.