STUDY OF HEPATITIS B VIRUS INFECTION AND ITS GENOTYPES IN TRIBAL PEOPLE
Objective: This study was undertaken to screen the epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in ethnically distinct, tribal dominated and of lower
socioeconomic status area.
Methods: Briefly, 3 ml blood was collected from 50 random liver disease cases with jaundice, receiving care at Central Hospital, N.F. Railway, Guwahati,
and Guwahati Medical College, with informed consent. The patients detected with hepatitis A virus (HAV)-immunoglobulin M positive status were
included and were stratified as acute viral hepatitis and fulminant hepatitis failure based on the clinical profile. HAV genotyping was studied by
polymerase chain reaction-direct sequencing-phylogenetic analysis approach. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 13.0 software.
Result: A total of 50 cases were HBV infected. HBV infection was predominant in the young and adult age group. HBV-RNA was detected in 19 cases.
Conclusion: This study shows that HBV genotype D is most commonly found hepatitis in all tribes of Assam and poor sanitation and alcohol
consumption are a common reason for its widespread.
Keywords: Genotype, Hepatitis B virus, Liver disease, Molecular epidemiology, Phylogenetic study.
2. Acharya SK, Madan K, Dattagupta S, Panda SK. Viral hepatitis in India. Natl Med J India 2006;19(4):203-17.
3. Chowdhury A, Santra A, Chakravorty R, Banerji A, Pal S, Dhali GK, et al. Community-based epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in West Bengal, India: Prevalence of hepatitis B e antigen-negative infection and associated viral variants. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005;20(11):1712-20.
4. Kurien T, Thyagarajan SP, Jeyaseelan L, Peedicayil A, Rajendran P, Sivaram S, et al; STD study group.community prevalence of hepatitis B infection and modes of transmission in Tamil Nadu, India. Indian J Med Res 2005;121(5):670-5.
5. Banerjee A, Chakravarty R, Mondal PN, Chakraborty MS. Hepatitis B virus genotype D infection among antenatal patients attending a maternity hospital in Calcutta, India: Assessment of infectivity status. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2005;36(1):203-6.6. Murhekar MV, Murhekar KM, Sehgal SC. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis B infection among tribal school children in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Ann Trop Paediatr 2004;24(1):85-8.
7. Singh H, Aggarwal R, Singh RL, Naik SR, Naik S. Frequency of infection by hepatitis B virus and its surface mutants in a northern Indian population. Indian J Gastroenterol 2003;22(4):132-7.
8. Ganju SA, Goel A. Prevalence of HBV and HCV infection among health care workers (HCWs). J Commun Dis 2000;32(3):228-30.
9. Chowdhury A, Santra A, Chaudhuri S, Ghosh A, Banerjee P, Mazumder DN. Prevalence of hepatitis B infection in the general population: A rural community based study. Trop Gastroenterol 1999;20(2):75-7.
10. Blumberg BS, Alter HJ, Visnich S. Landmark article Feb 15, 1965: A â€œnewâ€ antigen in leukemia sera. By Baruch S. Blumberg, Harvey J. Alter, and Sam Visnich. JAMA 1984;252(2):252-7.
11. Dane DS, Cameron CH, Briggs M. Virus-like particles in serum of patients with Australia-antigen-associated hepatitis. Lancet 1970;1(7649):695-8.
12. Pungpapong S, Kim WR, Poterucha JJ. Natural history of hepatitis B virus infection: An update for clinicians. Mayo Clin Proc 2007;82(8):967-75.
13. Shen LP, Yang JY, Mo ZJ, Li RC, Li YP, Wei ZL, et al. Variations of hepatitis B virus infection epidemic pattern after long-term HBV vaccine immunization. Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi 2007;21(3):253-5.
14. Chu CM. Natural history of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in adults with emphasis on the occurrence of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2000;15 Suppl: E25-30.
15. Yang Z, Lauder IJ, Lin HJ. Molecular evolution of the hepatitis B virus genome. J Mol Evol 1995;41:587-96.
16. Boyer JC, Bebenek K, Kunkel TA. Unequal HIV-1 reverse transcriptase error rates with RNA and DNA templates. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1992;89:6919-23.
17. Gunther S, Fischer L, Puli I, Sterneck M, Will H. Naturally occurring variants of hepatitis B. In: Maramorosch K, Murphy FA, Shatkin AJ, editor. Advances in Viral Research. San Diego: Academic Press; 1999. p. 25-137.
18. Okamoto H, Imai M, Kametani M, Nakamura T, Mayumi M. Genomic heterogeneity of hepatitis B virus in a 54-year-old woman who contracted the infection through materno-fetal transmission. Jpn J Exp Med 1987;57:231-6.
19. Girones R, Miller RL. Mutation rate of the hepadnavirus genome. Virology 1989;170:595-7.
20. Beasley RP, Hwang LY. Epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma. In: Vyas GN, Dienstag JL, Hoofnagle JH. Viral Hepatitis and Liver Disease. Orlando, FL: Grune and Strattonl; 1984. p. 209-24.
21. Botha JF, Dusheiko GM, Ritchie MJ, Mouton HW, Kew MC. Hepatitis B virus carrier state in black children in Ovamboland: Role of perinatal and horizontal infection. Lancet 1984;1:1210-2.
22. Edmunds WJ, Medley GF, Nokes DJ, Oâ€™Callaghan CJ, Whittle HC, Hall AJ. Epidemiological patterns of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in highly endemic areas. Epidemiol Infect 1996;117:313-25.
23. Yim HJ, Lok AS. Natural history of chronic hepatitis B virus infection: What we knew in 1981 and what we know in 2005. Hepatology 2006;43 2 Suppl 1:S173-81.
24. Chandra R, Kapoor D, Agarwal SR, Malhotra V, Sakhuja P, Sarin SK. Profile of asymptomatic chronic HBV infection in India. Indian J Med Res 2002;116:50-7.
25. Satapathy SK, Garg S, Chauhan R, Malhotra V, Sakhuja P, Sharma BC, Sarin SK. Profile of chronic hepatitis B virus in children in India: Experience with 116 children. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006;21(7):1170-6.
26. Nayak NC, Dhar A, Sachdeva R, Mittal A, Seth HN, Sudarsanam D, et al. Association of human hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis with hepatitis B virus surface and core antigens in the liver. Int J Cancer 1977;20(3):643-54.
27. Tandon BN, Acharya SK, Tandon A. Epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in India. Gut 1996;38 Suppl 2:S56-9.
28. Alter HJ, Holland PV, Purcell RH, Lander JJ, Feinstone SM, Morrow AG, et al. Posttransfusion hepatitis after exclusion of commercial and hepatitis-B antigen-positive donors. Ann Intern Med 1972;77(5):691-9.
29. Liu CJ, Chen DS, Chen PJ. Epidemiology of HBV infection in Asian blood donors: Emphasis on occult HBV infection and the role of NAT. J Clin Virol 2006;36 Suppl 1:S33-44.
30. Margolis HS, Alter MJ, Hadler SC. Hepatitis B: Evolving epidemiology and implications for control. Semin Liver Dis 1991;11(2):84-92.
31. Lok AS, McMahon BJ. Chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology 2007;45(2):507-39.
32. Okamoto H, Tsuda F, Sakugawa H, Sastrosoewignjo RI, Imai M, Miyakawa Y, et al. Typing hepatitis B virus by homology in nucleotide sequence: Comparison of surface antigen subtypes. J Gen Virol 1988;69:2575-83.
33. Norder H, Hammas B, Lee SD, Bile K, Courouce AM, Mushahwar IK, et al. Genetic relatedness of hepatitis B viral strains of diverse geographical origin and natural variations in the primary structure of the surface antigen. J Gen Virol 1993;74:1341-8.
34. Magnius LO, Norder H. Subtypes, genotypes and molecular epidemiology of the hepatitis B virus as reflected by sequence variability of the S-gene. Intervirology 1995;38(1-2):24-34.
35. Norder H, Courouce AM, Magnius LO. Complete genomes, phylogenetic relatedness, and structural proteins of six strains of the hepatitis B virus, four of which represent two new genotypes. Virology 1994;198:489-503.
36. Bowyer SM, van Staden L, Kew MC, Sim JG. Aunique segment of the hepatitis B virus group A genotype identified in isolates from South Africa. J Gen Virol 1997;781719-29.
42. Kao JH, Chen PJ, Lai MY, Chen DS. Genotypes and clinical phenotypes of hepatitis B virus in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. J Clin Microbiol 2002;40(4):1207-9.
43. Kao JH, Wu NH, Chen PJ, Lai MY, Chen DS. Hepatitis B genotypes and the response to interferon therapy. J Hepatol 2000;33(6):998-1002.
44. Kao JH, Chen PJ, Lai MY, Chen DS. Hepatitis B genotypes correlate with clinical outcomes in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Gastroenterology 2000;118(3):554-9.
45. Chu CJ, Hussain M, Lok AS. Hepatitis B virus genotype B is associated with earlier HBeAg seroconversion compared with hepatitis B virus genotype C. Gastroenterology 2002;122:1756-62.
46. Grandjacques C, Pradat P, Stuyver L, Chevallier M, Chevallier P, Pichoud C, et al. Rapid detection of genotypes and mutations in the pre-core promoter and the pre-core region of hepatitis B virus genome: Correlation with viral persistence and disease severity. J Hepatol 2000;33(3):430-9.
47. SÃ¡nchez-Tapias JM, Costa J, Mas A, Bruguera M, RodÃ©s J. Influence of hepatitis B virus genotype on the long-term outcome of chronic hepatitis B in Western patients. Gastroenterology 2002;123(6):1848-56.
48. Kar P, Polipalli SK, Chattopadhyay S, Hussain Z, Malik A, Husain SA, et al. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus genotype D in pre-core mutants among chronic liver disease patients from New Delhi, India. Dig Dis Sci 2007;52(2):565-9.
49. Kumar A, Kumar SI, Pandey R, Naik S, Aggarwal R. Hepatitis B virus genotype a is more often associated with severe liver disease in Northern India than is genotype D. Indian J Gastroenterol 2005;24(1):19-22.
50. Rehm J, Mathers C, Popova S, Thavorncharoensap M, Teerawattananon Y, Patra J. Global burden of disease and injury and economic cost attributable to alcohol use and alcohol-use disorders. Lancet 2009;373(9682):2223-33.
51. Walsh K, Alexander G. Alcoholic liver disease. Postgrad Med J 2000;76:280-6.