EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL POTENTIAL OF LEAF AND LEAF DERIVED CALLUS EXTRACTS OF ORTHOSIPHON ARISTATUS (BLUME) MIQ.
Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of chloroform, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts of leaf and leaf derived callus of Orthosiphon aristatus against Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtiltis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterobater aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Klebseilla pneumoniae.
Methods: The leaf segments were cut into small pieces of size 1-2 sq. cm and were cultured on Murashige and Skoog solid medium supplemented with different auxins alone and in combination. Antibacterial efficacy was performed by disc diffusion method followed my MIC determination by two fold serial dilution method. Leaf and leaf callus extracts were subjected to the qualitative phytochemical analysis.
Results: Maximum callus formation percentage was obtained from the leaf segments cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2, 4-D (2 mg/l). Ethanolic leaf extract showed maximum inhibition activity with 28 mm zone of inhibition against P. mirabilis with MIC value of 0.32 mg/ml. Out of the callus extracts, ethanolic callus extract showed the maximum bio-efficacy against S. aureus with 26 mm zone of inhibition and MIC value of 0.64 mg/ml. Results revealed that both leaf and leaf derived callus are effective against Gram positive and Gram negative test bacteria.
Conclusion: The bioefficacy study confirms the strong antibacterial potential of leaf and leaf derived callus of O. aristatus.
2. Suffredini JB, Sader HS, Goncalves AG, Reis AO, Gales AC, Varella AD, Younes RN. Screening of antimicrobial extracts from plants native to Brazilian Amazon rainforest and Atlantic forest. Brazil. J. Med. Biol. Res 2004; 37: 379-384
3. Balandrin MJ, Klocke JA. Medicinal, Aromatic and Industrial materials from plants. Berlin: Bajaj Springer-Verlag 1988: 1-36.
4. York T, de-Wet H, Van-Vuuren SF. Plants used for treating respiratory infections in rural Maputal and, KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2011; 135(3): 696-710
5. Ghalib RM, Folkers GK, Fauci AS. The challenge of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Nature 2012; 430(6996): 242-249
6. Tenover FC. Mechanism of antimicrobial resistance bacteria. The American Journal of Medicine 2006; 119(6): S3-S6.
7. McGaw LJ, Lall N, Meyer JJM, Eloff JN. The potential of South African plants against Mycobacterium infections. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2008; 119(3): 482-500.
8. Keng H. Labiatae. Flora Malesiana 1978; (3): 379-81.
9. Anonymous (1967). Burmese indigenous medicinal plants: Plants with reputed hypoglycemic action. Burma Medical Research Institute.
10. Anonymous, (1995). Medicinal herb index in Indonesia. Eisai Ind
11. Isnandar H. Kumpulan (2005). Ramuan obat tradisioinal Indonesia. PJ Dayang sumbi, 109-112.
12. Arisandi Y, Andriani Y, Khasiat Tanaman Obat. (2006). Penerbit Pustaka Buku Murah, 196-98.
13. Bwin DM, Gwan US. Ministry of Health, Health and Myanmar traditional medicine. In Burmese Indigenous Medicinal Plant: Plants with Eeputed Hypoglycemic Action; Burma Medical Research Institute: Yangon, Burma 1967; pp. 126-128.
14. Suresh A, Yasuhiro T, Arjun H, Banskota S, Shimoji KT, Shigetoshi K, Siphonols AE. Novel Nitric Oxide Inhibitors from Orthosiphon stamineus of Indonesia. Bioorganic and Medical Chemistry Letters 2003; 13(2): 31- 35.
15. Wealth of India: Raw materials. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, India 3: 168â€“170, 1966.
16. Rajendran SM, Chandrasekar K, Sundersan V. Ethanomedicinal lore of Seithur hills-Southern Westen Ghats, Tamil Nadu. Ethnobotany 2001; 13(3): 101-109.
17. Harborne JB. Phytochemical Methods-A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. Chapman and Hall, London, 1998: 182-190.
18. Doughari JH. Antimicrobial activity of Tamarindus indica Linn. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 2007; 5(2): 597-603.
19. Anonymous . Pharmacopeia of India (The Indian Pharmacopeia), 3rd Edn., Govt. of India, New Delhi, Ministry of Family and Health Welfare 1996.
20. Hoffman BR, Delas AH, Blanco K, Wiederhold N, Lewis RE, Williams. Screening of antibacterial and antifungal activities of ten medicinal plants from Ghana. Pharmaceutical Biology 2004; 42(1): 13-17
21. Eloff JN. A sensitive and quick microplate method to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration of plant extracts for bacteria. Planta Medica 1998; 64(8): 711-713.
22. Klancnik A, Piskernik S, Jersek S, Mozina AS. Evaluation of diffusion and dilution methods to determine the antibacterial activity of plant extracts. Journal of Microbiology Methods 2010; 8(1): 121-126.
23. Zhang L, Zhang J, Qi B, Jiang G, Liu J, Zhang P, Li W. The anti-tumor effect and bioactive phytochemicals of Hedyotis diffusa willd on ovarian cancer cells. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2016; 192: 132-139.
24. Rout GR, Saxena C, Samantaray S, Das P. Rapid plant regeneration from callus cultures of Plumbago zeylanica. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 1999; 56: 47-51
25. Jain SC, Jian R, Vlietinck JA. In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial efficacy of Mimosa hamate. Indian Journal of Biotechnology 2004; 3: 271-273
26. Shariff N, Sudarshana MS, Umesha S, Hariprasad P. Antimicrobial activity of Rauvolfia tetraphylla and Physalis minima leaf and leaf callus extracts. African Journal of Biotechnology 2006; 5: 946-950
27. Manickam VS, Elangomadhavan R, Antonisamy R. Regeneration of Indian ginseng plantlets from stem callus. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 2000; 14: 55-58
28. Moreno S, Scheyer T, Romano CS, Vojnov AA. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of rosemary extracts linked to their polyphenol composition. Free Radical Research, 2006; 40(8), 223-231.
29. Martin GJ. Ethnobotany: a methods manual. London: Chapman and Hall, Earthscan, 1995; (Vol. 1).
30. Sanches NR, Garcia Cortez DA, Schiavini MS, Nakamura CV, Dias Filho BP. An evaluation of antibacterial activities of Psidium guajava(L.). Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 2005; 48(3): 429- 436.
31. Aboaba OO, Smith SI, Olude FO. Antibacterial effect of edible plant extract on Escherichia coli 0157: H7. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 2006; 5(4): 325-327.
32. Durmaz H, Sagun E, Tarakci Z, Ozgokce F. Antibacterial activities of Allium vineale, Chaerophyllum macropodum and Prangos ferulacea. African Journal of Biotechnology 2006; 5(19), 1795-1798.
33. Nostro A, Germano MP, Dâ€™angelo V, Marino A, Cannatelli MA. Extraction methods and bioautography for evaluation of medicinal plant for antimicrobial activity. Letters in Applied Microbiology 2000; 30(5): 379-384.
34. Tadeg H, Mohammed E, Asres K, Gebre-Mariam T. Antimicrobial activities of some selected traditional Ethiopian medicinal plants used in the treatment of skin disorders. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2005; 100(1): 168-175.
35. Gupta HM, Saxena VK. A new acylated Luteolin-7-0-Î²-D-glucoside from the roots of Barleria priontis (Lin). National Academy of Science Letters 1984; 7(3): 187-189.
36. Moin S. Babu SS, Mahalakshmipriya A. In vitro callus production and antibacterial activity of Barleria lupulina. Asian Pacific Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology 2012; 20(2), 59-64
37. Sokmen A. Antiviral and cytotoxic activities of extracts from cell cultures and respective parts of some Turkish medicinal plants. Turkish Journal of Biology 2001; 12(5): 343-350.
38. Gulluce M, Sokmen M, Daferepa D, Agar G, Ozkan H, Kartal N, Polissiou M, Sokmen A, Sahin F. In vitro antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of herbal parts and callus cultures of Satureja hortensis. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 2003; 51(8), 3958-3965.
39. Tejavathi DH, Rao N. Comparative studies between normal and tissue culture plants of Bacopa monnieri. Role of Biotechnology in Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. Ukkaz Publications, Hyderabad, 1996; 239-249.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.