EVALUATION OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF CITRUS RETICULATA: IN VITRO AND ITS PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION

  • Arjan Aryal Pharm.D, Department of Pharmacy Practice Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy
  • Sabita Upreti Department of Pharmacology, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
  • Kuntal Das Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

Background: The prevalence of worm infestation is high in under developed and developing countries due to poor sanitation and lack of health education. Citrus reticulata, fruit belonging to citrus family rutaceae is a common fruit native to Asia. Peels of the fruit is rich in limonene, a potent phytoconstituent having anthelmintic activity. However, proper utilization of peels has not been done as it is not consumed and is therefore discarded.

Objective: To explore various phytoconstituents present in Citrus reticulata and its anthelmintic effect.

Method: Various concentration of Methanolic extract and Volatile oil of Citrus reticulata were subjected for assessment of anthelmintic activity in earthworms. Time of paralysis and time of death were used as an evaluation parameter. Albendazole (25 mg/ml) was used as a standard drug.

Results: Phytochemical test revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids and glycosides. Concentration dependent anthelmintic effect was observed with the extract where 150 mg/ml concentration of methanolic extract showed paralysis of test worm (earthworm) at 5.76 min and death at 19.16 min respectively.

Conclusion: Citrus reticulata peel has shown substantial anthelmintic activity using in vitro model on earthworms. Hence, further research is required to understand its mechanism of action using in vivo models to confirm its anthelmintic potential.

Keywords: Citrus reticulata, Anthelmintic activity, Phytochemical constituents, Pheretima phostuma

References

1. Helminthiasis [Internet]. World Health Organization. 2016 [cited 24 October 2016]. Available from: http://www.who.int/tdr/diseases-topics/helminths/en/
2. Vesna T, Gordana S, Sonja M, Jasna M, Jelena J, Željko Knez,et al. Antioxidant Activity of Mandarin (Citrus reticulata) Peel. APTEFF 2010; 41: 1-203.
3. K.R Kirtikar and BD Basu, Indian Medicinal plants, Lalit Mohan Basu and Co., India. 1935;1: 451.
4. V.K. Saxena, Preeti Shrivastava. 3-Methoxy Flavones: The Potential Antiviral Agents from Citrus reticulata, Blanco. Asian Journal of Chemistry 1995; 7(1): 157-60.
5. Adeleke AK, Oladipupo AL, Olatunji TA, Abayomi AO, William NS. Citrus Essential Oils of Nigeria Part IV: Volatile Constituents of Leaf Oils of Mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco) From Nigeria. Rec. Nat. Prod 2010; 4:3: 156-62.
6. Burkill HM. The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. Royal Botanical Garden Kew. 2nd edition, Families M-R 1984. 1: 647.
7. Ayoola GA, Johnson OO, Adelowotan T, Aibinu IE, Adenipekun E, Adepoju-Bello AA, et al. Evaluation of the chemical constituents and the antimicrobial activity of the volatile oil of Citrus reticulata fruit (Tangerine fruit peel) from South West Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology 2008; 7 (13): 2227-31.
8. Dugrand-Judek A, Olry A, Hehn A, Costantino G, Ollitrault P. The Distribution of Coumarins and Furanocoumarins in Citrus Species Closely Matches Citrus Phylogeny and Reflects the Organization of Biosynthetic Pathways. PLoS ONE 2015; 10(11): e0142757.
9. Kang SA, Park HJ, Kim MJ, Lee SY, Han SW, Leem KH. Citri Reticulatae Viride Pericarpium extract induced apoptosis in SNU-C4, human colon cancer cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005; 97(2): 231-5.
10. Li Y, Xu C, Zhang Q, Liu JY, Tan RX. In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori action of 30 Chinese herbal medicines used to treat ulcer diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 2005; 98(3): 329-33.
11. Kokate C K. Pharmacognosy. 16th Edn, Nirali Prakhasan, Mumbai, India, 2001.
12. Squires JM, Foster J, Lindsay D, Caudell D, Zajac A. Efficacy of an orange oil emulsion as an anthelmintic against Haemonchus contortus in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) and in sheep. Vet. Parasitol 2010; 172: 95–9.
Statistics
888 Views | 526 Downloads
Citatons
How to Cite
Aryal, A., S. Upreti, and K. Das. “EVALUATION OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF CITRUS RETICULATA: IN VITRO AND ITS PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 10, no. 5, May 2017, pp. 278-80, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i5.17406.
Section
Original Article(s)