• Shah Khalid Department of Botany, Pest Control and Ayurvedic Drug Research Lab, Vidisha, Madhya Pradesh, India.
  • Aparna Alia Department of Botany, Rajeev Gandhi College, Shahpura, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.
  • Shrivastava Pn Department of Botany, Pest Control and Ayurvedic Drug Research Lab, Vidisha, Madhya Pradesh, India.
  • Muzafar Akbar Rather Department of Botany, Pest Control and Ayurvedic Drug Research Lab, Vidisha, Madhya Pradesh, India.
  • Muzafar Ah Sheikh Department of Zoology, Government Degree College, Ganderbal, Jammu and Kashmir, India.


Objective: The main aim of this study was to determine the in vitro antioxidant activity of Iris kashmiriana ethanolic leaf extract and also total phenol and flavonoid content was evaluated.

Methods: Total phenol content (TPC) was determined by Folin–Ciocalteu method, total flavonoid content (TFC) was estimated by aluminum trichloride spectrophotometer method. Furthermore, antioxidant activity was revealed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging activity, and reducing power assay.

Results: The ethanolic leaf extract of I. kashmiriana showed TPC of 13.25±0.57 μg/100 μg gallic acid equivalents and TFC of 33.61±3.37 μg/100 μg rutin equivalents. The DPPH assay revealed IC50 of 0.418 mg/ml and for H2O2 radical scavenging IC50 was 0.476 mg/ml for the plant extract while as reducing power assay revealed concentration-dependent absorption values which clearly determine the antioxidant property of plant.

Conclusion: From the results, it is apparent that I. kashmiriana ethanolic leaf extract possessed potential antioxidant activity which can be used to cure wide range of diseases.

Keywords: Iris kashmiriana, Total phenol content, Total flavonoid content, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, Hydrogen peroxide.

Author Biography

Shah Khalid, Department of Botany, Pest Control and Ayurvedic Drug Research Lab, Vidisha, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Research Scholar

Department Of Botany

Pest Control and Ayurvedic Drug Research Lab, Vidisha, M.P. India 464001.


1. Bouchagier P, Efthimiadou A, Katsileros A, Bilalis D, Efthimiadis P. Adverse effect of Bermuda grass on physiological and growth components of cotton. J Agron 2008;7(1):49-55.
2. Oluyemi KA, Okwuonu UC, Baxter DG, Oyesola TO. Toxic effects of methanolic exract of Aspilia africana leaf on the estrous cycle and uterine tissues of Wistar rats. Int J Morphol 2007;25:609-14.
3. Huang D, Ou B, Prior RL. The chemistry behind antioxidant capacity assays. J Agric Food Chem 2005;53:1841-56.
4. Bakkali F, Averbeck S, Averbeck D, Idaomar M. Biological effects of essential oils. Food Chem Toxicol 2008;8(46):446-75.
5. Jeong SM, Kim SY, Kim DR, Nam KC, Ahn DU, Lee SC. Effect of seed roasting conditions on the antioxidant activity of defatted sesame meal extracts. Food Chem Toxicol 2004;69(5):377-81.
6. Bors W, Saran M. Radical scavenging by flavonoid antioxidants. Free Radical Res Commun 1987;2:289-94.
7. Maisuthisakul P, Suttajit M, Pongsawatmanit R. Assessment of phenolic content and free radical-scavenging capacity of some Thai indigenous plants. Food Chem 2007;100:1409-18.
8. Sarikurkcu C, Arisoy K, Tepe B, Cakir A, Abali G, Mete E. Studies on the antioxidant activity of essential oil and different solvent extracts of Vitex agnus castus L. Fruits Turk Food Chem Toxicol 2009;47(10):2479-83.
9. Trease GE, Evans WC. Pharmacognosy. Vol. 13. London: Brailliar Tiridel Can Acmillian Publishers; 1989. p. 28-32.
10. Kokate CK, Purohit AP, Gokhale SB. Pharmacognosy. Vol. 14. New Delhi, India: Nirali Prakashan; 2006. p. 593-5.
11. Singelton VR, Orthifer R, Lamuela-Raventos RM. Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Methods Enzymol 1999;299:152-78.
12. Zhishen J, Mengeheng T, Jianming W. The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chem 1999;64:555-9.
13. Adedayo BJ, Oboh G, Oyeleye SI, Ejakpovi II, Boligon AA, Athayde ML. Blanching alters the phenolic constituents and in vitro antioxidant and anticholinesterases properties of fireweed (Crassocephalum crepidioides). J Taibah Univ Med Sci 2015;10(4):419-26.
14. Ruch RJ, Cheng SJ, Klaunig JE. Prevention of cytotoxicity and inhibition of intracellular communication by antioxidant cate chins isolated from Chinese green tea. Carcinogenesis 1989;10:1003-8.
15. Jain R, Jain SK. Total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of some selected anticancer medicinal plants from Chhattisgarh State. India Pharmacol Online 2011;2:755-62.
16. Kokate KC. Practical Pharmacognosy. 4th ed. Delhi: Vallabh Prakashan; 1997. p. 218.
17. Harborne JB. Phytochemical Methods: A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis. 2nd ed. London: Chapman and Hall; 1998. p. 54-84.
18. Diem-Do Q, Angkawijaya AE, Tran-Nguyen PL, Huynh LH, Soetaredjo FE, Ismadji S, et al. Effect of extraction solvent on total phenol content total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of Limnophila aromatic. J Food Drug Anal 2014;22:296-302.
19. Molyneux P. The use of the stable free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) for estimating antioxidant activity. Songklanakarin J Sci Technol 2004;26(2):211-9.
20. Abdille MH, Singh RP, Jayaprakasha GK, Jena BS. Antioxidant activity of the extracts from Dillenia indica fruits. Food Chem 2005;90(4):891-6.
21. Vats V, Grover JK, Rathi SS. Evaluation of antihyperglycemic and hypoglycemic effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn Ocimum sanctum Linn and Pterocarpus marsupium Linn in normal and alloxanized diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;79:95-100.
22. Karanjit N, Shrestha UK, Ranjitkar RR. A study on hypoglycemic properties of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. Bull Dep Plant Res 2008;30:97-101.
23. Halliwell B. Reactive oxygen species in living systems: Source biochemistry and role in human disease. Am J Med 1991;91:14-22.
24. Miller MJ, Sadowska-Krowicka H, Chotinaruemol S, Kakkis JL, Clark DA. Amelioration of chronic ileitis by nitric oxide synthase inhibition. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1993;264(1):11-6.
25. Duh PD, Tu YY, Yen GC. Antioxidant activity of water extract of Harng Jyur (Chrysanthemum moifolium Ramat). Lebensm Technol 1999;32:269-77.
26. Chandar B, Ramasamy MK. Evaluation of antioxidant, antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract in the leaves of Combretum albidum and gas chromatography-mass septrometry analysis. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;9(4):325-9.
27. Geetha S, Irulandi K, Mehalingam P. Evaluation of antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of different solvent extracts of leaves of Piper umbellatum. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2017;10(2):274-6.
324 Views | 350 Downloads
How to Cite
Khalid, S., A. Alia, S. Pn, M. A. Rather, and M. A. Sheikh. “EVALUATION OF IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND ESTIMATION OF TOTAL PHENOL AND FLAVONOID CONTENT OF ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF IRIS KASHMIRIANA”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 10, no. 8, Aug. 2017, pp. 309-12, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i8.18268.
Original Article(s)