EFFECTS OF A PROPRIETARY BLEND RICH IN GLYCOSIDE BASED STANDARDIZED FENUGREEK SEED EXTRACT (IBPR) ON INFLAMMATORY MARKERS DURING ACUTE ECCENTRIC RESISTANCE EXERCISE IN YOUNG SUBJECTS
Â Objective: To assess the efficacy of a proprietary blend rich in glycoside based standardized fenugreek seed extract (400 mg) and minor quantities of curcumin and cinnamon (25 mg each) supplementation (IBPR) on inflammatory markers related to skeletal muscle soreness using double-blind placebo control, parallel design.
Methods: A total of 20 healthy non-resistance trained young male and female subjects were assigned to ingest either IBPR or matching placebo for 14 days before the eccentric exercise bout. Subjects were instructed to perform 24 sets with 10 eccentric knee extensor repetitions (with one leg at 30Â°/s on an isokinetic device). Subjects had their blood drawn at baseline, immediately post, 1 hr, 3 hrs, and 24 hrs post-eccentric exercise. Efficacy in terms of serum levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-10 (IL-10), pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ra, IL-1b, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor) and safety in terms of kidney function (blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, BUN to creatinine ratio), and differential leukocyte count were measured. The data of each parameter were analyzed by two-way repeated measure ANOVA.
Results: Significant time-dependent effects were observed in IL1b, IL6, and creatinine values from baseline whereas significant treatment dependent effect was seen in IL-1ra. IBPR was found to be safe and well tolerated.
Conclusion: IBPR supplementation showed a significant anti-inflammatory efficacy on eccentric exercise-induced inflammatory markers of skeletal muscle soreness in non-resistance trained subjects.
2. LaStayo PC, Ewy GA, Pierotti DD, Johns RK, Lindstedt S. The positive effects of negative work: Increased muscle strength and decreased fall risk in a frail elderly population. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2003;58(5):M419-24.
3. Nikolaidis MG, Paschalis V, Giakas G, Fatouros IG, Sakellariou GK, Theodorou AA, et al. Favorable and prolonged changes in blood lipid profile after muscle-damaging exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2008;40(8):1483-9.
4. Panayiotou G, Paschalis V, Nikolaidis MG, Theodorou AA, Deli CK, Fotopoulou N, et al. No adverse effects of statins on muscle function and health-related parameters in the elderly: An exercise study. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2013;23(5):556-67.
5. Theodorou AA, Nikolaidis MG, Paschalis V, Koutsias S, Panayiotou G, Fatouros IG, et al. No effect of antioxidant supplementation on muscle performance and blood redox status adaptations to eccentric training. Am J Clin Nutr 2011;93(6):1373-83.
6. Paschalis V, Nikolaidis MG, Theodorou AA, Panayiotou G, Fatouros IG, Koutedakis Y, et al. A weekly bout of eccentric exercise is sufficient to induce health-promoting effects. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2011;43(1):64-73.
7. Paulsen G, Mikkelsen UR, Raastad T, Peake JM. Leucocytes, cytokines and satellite cells: What role do they play in muscle damage and regeneration following eccentric exercise? Exerc Immunol Rev 2012;18:42-97.
8. HortobÃ¡gyi T, Barrier J, Beard D, Braspennincx J, Koens P, Devita P, et al. Greater initial adaptations to submaximal muscle lengthening than maximal shortening. J Appl Physiol 1996;81(4):1677-82.
9. Farthing JP, Chilibeck PD. The effects of eccentric and concentric training at different velocities on muscle hypertrophy. Eur J Appl Physiol 2003;89(6):578-86.
10. Hassan N, Withycombe C, Ahluwalia M, Thomas A, Morris K. A methanolic extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) seeds regulates markers of macrophage polarization. Funct Foods Health Dis 2015;5:417-26.
11. Suresh P, Kavitha CH, Babu SM, Reddy VP, Latha AK. Effect of ethanol extract of Trigonella foenum graecum (Fenugreek) seeds on Freundâ€™s adjuvant-induced arthritis in albino rats. Inflammation 2012;35(4):1314-21.
12. Dharajiya D, Jasani H, Khatrani T, Kapuria M, Pachchigar K, Patel P. Evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal activity of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) extracts. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8:212-7. Available from: https://www.innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ijpps/article/view/10693/4219.
13. Jyothi D, Koland M. Formulation and evaluation of an herbal anti-inflammatory gel containing Trigonella foenum greacum seed extract. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8:41-4. Available from: https://www.innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ijpps/article/view/8226/3476.
14. Valette G, Sauvaire Y, Baccou JC, Ribes G. Hypocholesterolaemic effect of fenugreek seeds in dogs. Atherosclerosis 1984;50(1):105-11.
15. Gupta A, Gupta R, Lal B. Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seeds on glycaemic control and insulin resistance in Type 2 diabetes mellitus: A double blind placebo controlled study. J Assoc Physicians India 2001;49:1057-61.
16. Raghuram T, Sharma R, Sivakumar B, Sahay B. Effect of fenugreek seeds on intravenous glucose disposition in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Phytother Res 1994;8:83-6.
17. Chen M, Wang T, Jiang ZZ, Shan C, Wang H, Wu MJ, et al. Anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of total flavonoid C-glycosides from Abrus mollis extracts. Chin J Nat Med 2014;12(8):590-8.
18. Okoye FB, Osadebe PO. A new anti-inflammatory flavonol glycoside from Alchornea floribunda leaves. Nat Prod Res 2010;24(3):266-73.
19. Yadava RN, Reddy VM. Anti-inflammatory activity of a novel flavonol glycoside from the Bauhinia variegata Linn. Nat Prod Res 2003;17(3):165-9.
20. Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, Dugall M, Pellegrini L, Ledda A, Grossi MG, et al. Efficacy and safety of MerivaÂ®, a curcumin-phosphatidylcholine complex, during extended administration in osteoarthritis patients. Altern Med Rev 2010;15(4):337-44.
21. Mashhadi NS, Ghiasvand R, Askari G, Feizi A, Hariri M, Darvishi L, et al. Influence of ginger and cinnamon intake on inflammation and muscle soreness endued by exercise in Iranian female athletes. Int J Prev Med 2013;4(1):S11-5.
22. Andersen P, Saltin B. Maximal perfusion of skeletal muscle in man. J Physiol 1985;366:233-49.
23. MacIntyre DL, Reid WD, Lyster DM, Szasz IJ, McKenzie DC. Presence of WBC, decreased strength, and delayed soreness in muscle after eccentric exercise. J Appl Physiol 1996;80(3):1006-13.
24. Mokashi M, Singh-Mokashi R, Mohan V, Thakurdesai P. Effects of glycosides based fenugreek seed extract on serum testosterone levels of healthy sedentary male subjects: A exploratory double blind, placebo controlled, crossover study. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2014;7:177-81.
25. Deshpande P, Mohan V, Pore M, Gumaste S, Thakurdesai P. Prenatal developmental toxicity evaluation of furostanol saponin glycoside based standardized fenugreek seed extract during organogenesis period of pregnancy in rats. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8124. DOI:10.22159/ijpps.2016v8i12.14942. Available from: http://www.innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ijpps/article/view/14942/8272.
26. Deshpande P, Mohan V, Pore MP, Gumaste S, Thakurdesai PA. Prenatal developmental toxicity evaluation of low molecular weight galactomannans based standardized fenugreek seed extract during organogenesis period of pregnancy in rats. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8:248-53. Available from: http://www.innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ijpps/article/view/11023.
27. Pedersen BK, Febbraio MA. Muscle as an endocrine organ: Focus on muscle-derived interleukin-6. Physiol Rev 2008;88(4):1379-406.
28. Wojtaszewski JF, Hansen BF, Gade Kiens B, Markuns JF, Goodyear LJ. Insulin signaling and insulin sensitivity after exercise in human skeletal muscle. Diabetes 2000;49(3):325-1.
29. Hotamisligil GS, Murray DL, Choy LN, Spiegelman BM. Tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibits signaling from the insulin receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1994;91(11):4854-8.
30. Ostrowski K, Schjerling P, Pedersen BK. Physical activity and plasma interleukin-6 in humans - effect of intensity of exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 2000;83(6):512-5.
31. Mizuhara H, Oâ€™Neill E, Seki N, Ogawa T, Kusunoki C, Otsuka K, et al. T cell activation-associated hepatic injury: Mediation by tumor necrosis factors and protection by interleukin 6. J Exp Med 1994;179(5):1529-37.
32. van der Poll T, Coyle SM, Barbosa K, Braxton CC, Lowry SF. Epinephrine inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha and potentiates interleukin 10 production during human endotoxemia. J Clin Invest 1996;97(3):713-9.
33. Szostak J, Laurant P. The forgotten face of regular physical exercise: A â€˜naturalâ€™ anti-atherogenic activity. Clin Sci (Lond) 2011;121(3):91-106.
34. Natale VM, Brenner IK, Moldoveanu AI, Vasiliou P, Shek P, Shephard RJ. Effects of three different types of exercise on blood leukocyte count during and following exercise. Sao Paulo Med J 2003;121(1):9-14.
35. Sindhu G, Ratheesh M, Shyni GL, Nambisan B, Helen A. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of mucilage of Trigonella foenum graecum (Fenugreek) on adjuvant induced arthritic rats. Int Immunopharmacol 2012;12(1):205-11.
36. Pundarikakshudu K, Shah DH, Panchal AH, Bhavsar GC. Anti-inflammatory activity of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn) seed petroleum ether extract. Indian J Pharmacol 2016;48(4):441-4.
37. Bansal SK, Singh KV, Kumar S. Larvicidal activity of the extracts from different parts of the plant Solanum xanthocarpum against important mosquito vectors in the arid region. J Environ Biol 2009;30(2):221-6.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.