INDUCTION OF LABOR BY PROSTAGLANDIN: A REVIEW FOR INDICATIONS AND RISK FOR CESAREAN SECTION
Â Objective: Labor induction by medication is now preferred by many obstetricians. The impact of induction remains ambiguous, although many studies and systematic reviews have been conducted. Few studies have reported for its better outcomes while other studies with poor outcomes. The objective of the study is to identify the common indications of induction and the risk of cesarean section after induction.
Methods: Various standardized databases, such as Pub Med, Scopus, and Google Scholar, were used to collect the scientific studies, where prostaglandin was used as drug of choice for induction of labor. The key words used were induction of labor, indications of induction, induction by misoprostol, induction and risk of cesarean section, etc. The survey spans over 22 years of study articles published from the year 1995-2017.
Result: A total of 112 studies have been included to analyze the indications and risk of cesarean section. The most common indication found in most of the studies was post-term pregnancy. The risk of cesarean section varied from 3% to 48.7%. The common reasons for which the cesarean section was planned were, failed induction, nonprogress of labor, fetal distress, and undiagnosed CPD.
Conclusion: Most of the studies recommend induction of labor as a safer option with lower risk of c-section.
2. Kandhaswamy A, Rangan S, Ahmed I, Meena KS. Synthesis, in silico docking and admet studies of arylacetic acid derivatives as prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase-2 inhibitors. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2017;10(4):68-72.
3. Bhupesh CS, Rohit B, Kalyani D. Analgesic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts of malvastrum coromandelianum. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;9(5):146-9.
4. Wing DA, Gaffaney CA. Vaginal misoprostol administration for cervical ripening and labor induction. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2006;49(3):627-41.
5. Kelly AJ, Malik S, Smith L, Kavanagh J, Thomas J. Vaginal prostaglandin (PGE2 and PGF2a) for induction of labour at term. Database Syst Rev 2009;4:CD003101.
6. Abbasi N, Danish N, Shakoor F, Parveen Z, Bilal SA. Effectiveness and safety of vaginal misoprostol for induction of labour in unfavourable cervix in 3rd trimester. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2008;20(3):33-5.
7. Crane JM, Butler B, Young DC, Hannah ME. Misoprostol compared with prostaglandin E2 for labour induction in women at term with intact membranes and unfavourable cervix: A systematic review. BJOG 2006;113(6):1366-76.
8. Gulmezoglu AM, Crowther CA, Middleton P, Heatley E. Induction of labour for improving birth outcomes for women at or beyond term. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012;6:Cd004945.
9. Mealing NM, Roberts CL, Ford JB, Simpson JM, Morris JM, Aust N Z. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2009; 49(6):599-605.
10. Admani R. Predictors of Successful Induction of Labor in Post Term Pregnancies at Kenyatta National Hospital; 2014. Available from: http://www.obsgyn.uonbi.ac.ke/sites/default/files/chs/medschool// Dr%20Rashida%20Admani.pd.
11. Esiromo M. Maternal and Fetal Outcomes among Women at or Near Term Undergoing Pharmacological Induction of Labor at KNH. M.Med, Thesis U.O.N; 2011. Available from: http://www.erepository.uonbi. ac.ke:8080//Esiromo_Outcomes%20Of%20Pharmacological%20I.
12. Lamichhane S, Subedi S, Banerjee B, Bhattara R. Outcome of induction of labor. A prospective study. Ann Int Med Dent Res 2016;2(6):1-5.
13. Lawani OL, Onyebuchi AK, Iyoke CA, Okafo CN, Ajah LO. Obstetric outcome and significance of labour induction in a health resource poor setting. Obstet Gynecol Int 2014. DOI: 10.1155/2014/419621.
14. Michelson KA, Carr DB, Easterling TR. The impact of duration of labor induction on cesarean rate. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2008;199(3):299.e1-4.
15. Hatfield AS, Sanchez-Ramos L, Kaunitz AM. Sonographic cervical assessment to predict the success of labor induction: A systematic review with metaanalysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2007;197(2):186-92.
16. Leduc D, Ottawa ON, Biringer A, Toronto ON, Lee L, Vancouver BC, et al. Induction of labour. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2013;35(9):840-60.
17. Khireddine I, Le Ray C, Dupont C, Rudigoz RC, Bouvier-Colle MH, Deneux-Tharaux C. Induction of labor and risk of postpartum hemorrhage in low risk parturients. PLoS One 2013;8(1):e54858.
18. Bueno B, San-Frutos L, PÃ©rez-Medina T, Barbancho C, Troyano J, Bajo J. The labor induction: Integrated clinical and sonographic variables that predict the outcome. J Perinatol 2007;27(1):4-8.
19. Dublin S, Lydon-Rochelle M, Kaplan RC, Watts DH, Critchlow CW. Maternal and neonatal outcomes after induction of labor without an identified indication. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000;183(4):986-94.
20. Mbele AM, Makin JD, Pattinson RC. Can the outcome of induction of labor with oral misoprostol be predicted. S Afr Med J 2007;97(4):289-92.
21. Ekele BA, Nnadi DC, Gana MA, Shehu CE, Ahmed Y, Nwobodo EI. Misoprostol use for cervical ripening and induction of labour in a Nigerian teaching hospital. Niger J Clin Pract 2007;10(3):234-7.
22. Verhoeven CJ, van Uytrecht CT, Porath MM, Mol BW. Risk factors for cesarean delivery following labor induction in multiparous women. J Pregnancy 2013;2013:6.
23. Mozurkewich E, Chilimigras J, Koepke E, Keeton K, King VJ. Indications for induction of labor: A best-evidence review. Am J Matern Child Nurs 2009;34:6.
24. Bello FA, Akinyotu OO. Predictors of successful induction of labor at a tertiary obstetric service in Southwest Nigeria. Trop J Obstet Gynaecol 2016;33(2):143-8.
25. Chirwa M. Factors Associated with Failed Induction of Labor at the University Teaching Hospital. Lusaka: Medical Thesis; 2014.
26. Guerra GV, Cecatti JG, Souza JP, FaÃºndes A, Morais SS, GÃ¼lmezoglu AM, et al. Factors and outcomes associated with the induction of labour in Latin America. BJOG 2009;116(3):1762-72.
27. Khan NB, Ahmed I, Malik A, Sheikh L. Factors associated with failed induction of labour in a secondary care hospital. J Pak Med Assoc 2012;62(1):6-10.
28. Ezechi OC, Kalu BK, Njokanma FO, Nwokoro CA, Okeke GC. Vaginal misoprostol induction of labor: A Nigerian hospital experience. J Obstet Gynaecol 2004;24(3):239-42.
29. Sanchez-Ramos L, Olivier F, Delke I, Kaunitz AM. Labor induction versus expectant management for postterm pregnancies: A systematic review with meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol 2003;101(6):1312-8.
30. Boulvain M, Kelly A, Irion O. Intracervical prostaglandins for induction of labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008;1:CD006971.
31. Rayamajhi RT, Karki C, Shrestha N, Padhye SM. Indication for labour induction and predictors for failed induction at KMCTH. Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) 2009;7(25):21-5.
32. Shah K, Doshi H. Premature rupture of membrane at term: Early induction versus expectant management. J Obstet Gynaecol India 2012;62(2):172-5.
33. Tripathy P, Pati T, Baby P, Mohapatra SK. Prevalence and predictors of failed. Induction. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2016;39(2):189-94.
34. Laddad MM, Kshirsagar NS, Karale AV. A prospectiverandomized comparative study of intra-cervical Foleyâ€™s catheter insertion versus PGE2 gel for pre-induction cervical ripening. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013;2(2):217-20.
35. Vogel JP, West HM, Dowswell T. Titrated oral misoprostol for augmenting labour to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;9:CD010648.
36. Soni K, Subudhi K, Mishra B, Gouda BC, Chaudhary S. Maternal and perinatal outcome in induction of labor: A comparative study. Sch J Appl Med Sci 2017;5(1D):273-81.
37. Tolcher MC, Holbert MR, Weaver AL, McGree ME, Olson JE, El-Nashar SA, et al. Predicting cesarean delivery after induction of labor among nulliparous women at term. Obstet Gynecol 2015;126(5):1059-68.
38. Heimstad R, Skogvoll E, Mattsson LA, Johansen OJ, Eik-Nes SH, Salvesen KA. Induction of labor or serial antenatal fetal monitoring in postterm pregnancy: A randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 2007;109(3):609-17.
39. Martin JA, Hamilton BE, Sutton PD, Ventura SJ, Mathews TJ, Kirmeyer S, et al. Births: Final data for 2007. Natl Vital Stat Rep 2010;58(24):1-85.
40. Gardosi J, Vanner T, Francis A. Gestational age and induction of labor for prolonged pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1997;104(7):792-7.
41. Paliulyte V, RamaÅ¡auskaite D. Labour induction in postdate pregnancy: When to start - At week 40 or 41 of gestation? Acta Med Lituanica 2010;17(1-2):11-6.
42. Sanchez-Ramos L, Kaunitz A. Induction of labor: Update and review. Glob Libr Womenâ€™s Med 2009. DOI: 10.3843/GLOWM.10130.
43. Roman H, Verspyck E, Vercoustre L, Degre S, Col JY, Firmin JM, et al. Does ultrasound examination when the cervix is unfavorable improve the prediction of failed labor induction? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2004;23:357-62.
44. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Induction of Labor. NICE Guideline CG70, Published July; 2008. Available from: http:// www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg70/chapter/1-recommendations.
45. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Induction of labor. ACOG practice bulletin 107. Obstet Gynecol 2009;114:386-97.
46. Lydon-Rochelle MT, CÃ¡rdenas V, Nelson JC, Holt VL, Gardella C, Easterling TR. Induction of labor in the absence of standard medical indications: Incidence and correlates. Med Care 2007;45(6):505-12.
47. GÃ¼lmezoglu AM, Crowther CA, Middleton P. Induction of labour for improving birth outcomes for women at or beyond term. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;4:CD004945.
48. Mishanina E, Rogozinska E, Thatthi T, Uddin-Khan R, Khan KS, Meads C. Use of labor induction and risk of cesarean delivery: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Can Med Assoc J 2014;186(9):665-73.
49. Xenakis EM, Piper JM, Field N, Conway D, Langer O. Preeclampsia: Is
induction of labor more successful? Obstet Gynecol 1997;89(4):600-3.
50. Lee HR, Kim MN, You JY, Choi SJ, Oh SY, Roh CR, et al. Risk of cesarean section after induced versus spontaneous labor at term gestation. Obstet Gynecol Sci 2015;58(5):346-52.
51. Park KH. Transvaginal ultrasonographic cervical measurement in predicting failed labor induction and cesarean delivery for failure to progress in nulliparous women. J Korean Med Sci 2007;22(4):722-7.
52. Jayaprakash S, Muralidhar L, Venkatesh S. Intracervical PGE2 gel for induction of labour in patients with prelabour rupture of membranes with unfavorable cervix after 34 weeks period of gestation. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016;5(5):1418-22.
53. Girma W, Tseadu F, Wolde M. Outcome of induction and associated factors among term and post-term mothers managed at Jimma university specialized hospital: A two yearsâ€™ retrospective analysis. Ethiop J Health Sci 2016;26(2):121-30.
54. Marroquin GA, Tudorica N, Salafia CM, Hecht R, Mikhail M. Induction of labor at 41 weeks of pregnancy among primiparas with an unfavorable Bishop score. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2013;288(5):989-93.
55. Danielsen C, White D, Hunter G, Olender M, Davis G. Using Bishop Score to Predict Labor Induction Time and Failure Rate; 2016. Available from: http://www.rowan.edu/som/education/graduate_medical/x- Danielsen_Poste.
56. Ahmadi S, Rahmani E, Motamed N, Ghorbanpoor M, Maneshi H. Bishop score predictive value in success of induced labor process among full term pregnant women referred to Persian Gulf Martyrsâ€™ Hospital in Bushehr in 2013. Iran South Med J 2016;19(4):620-8.
57. Parkes I, Kabiri D, Hants Y, Ezra Y. The indication for induction of labor impacts the risk of cesarean delivery. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2016;29(2):224-8.
58. Vahratian A, Zhang J, Troendle JF, Sciscione AC, Hoffman MK. Labor progression and risk of cesarean delivery in electively induced nulliparas. Obstet Gynecol 2005;105(4):698-704.
59. Davey MA, King J. Caesarean section following induction of labour in uncomplicated first births-a population-based cross-sectional analysis of 42,950 births. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2016;16:92.
60. Laughon SK, Zhang J, Troendle J, Sun L, Reddy UM. Using a simplified Bishop score to predict vaginal delivery. Obstet Gynecol 2011;117(4):805-11.
61. Teixeira C, Lunet N, Rodrigues T, Barros H. The Bishop Score as a determinant of labour induction success: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2012;286(3):739-53.
62. Hurissa BF, Geta M, Belachew T. Prevalence of failed induction of labor and associated factors among women delivered in hawassa public health facilities, Ethiopia. J Womens Health Care 2015;4:253.
63. Grobman WA. Predictors of induction success. Semin Perinatol 2012;36(5):344-7.
64. Crane JM. Factors predicting labor induction success: A critical analysis. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2006;49(3):573-84.
65. Ennen CS, Bofill JA, Magann EF, Bass JD, Chauhan SP, Morrison JC. Risk factors for cesarean delivery in preterm, term and post-term patients undergoing induction of labor with an unfavorable cervix. Gynecol Obstet Invest 2009;67(2):113-7.
66. Pevzner L, Rayburn WF, Rumney P, Wing DA. Factors predicting successful labor induction with dinoprostone and misoprostol vaginal inserts. Obstet Gynecol 2009;114:261-7.
67. Ehrenthal DB, Jiang X, Strobino DM. Labor induction and the risk of a cesarean delivery among nulliparous women at term. Obstet Gynecol 2010;116(1):35-42.
68. Glantz JC. Term labor induction compared with expectant management. Obstet Gynecol 2010;115(1):70-6.
69. Rouzi AA, Alsahly N, Alamoudi R, Almansouri N, Alsinani N, Alkafy S, et al. Randomized clinical trial between hourly titrated and 2 hourly static oral misoprostol solution for induction of labor. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017;216(4):405.e1-405.e6.
70. Blackwell SC, Redman ME, Tomlinson M, Landwehr JB Jr, Tuynman M, Gonik B, et al. Labor induction for the preterm severe pre-eclamptic patient: Is it worth the effort? J Matern Fetal Med 2001;10(5):305-11.
71. de la Torre S, Gilson GJ, Flores S, Curet LB, Qualls CE, Rayburn WF. Is high-dose misoprostol able to lower the incidence of cesarean section? A randomized controlled trial. J Matern Fetal Med 2001;10(2):85-90.
72. Pevzner L, Powers BL, Rayburn WF, Rumney P, Wing DA. Effects of maternal obesity on duration and outcomes of prostaglandin cervical ripening and labor induction. Obstet Gynecol 2009;114(6):1315-21.
73. Boulvain M, Irion O, Dowswell T, Thornton JG. Induction of labour at or near term for suspected fetal macrosomia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016;5:CD000938.
74. Moodley J, Venkatachalam S, Songca P. Misoprostol for cervical ripening at and near term - A comparative study. S Afr Med J 2003;93(5):371-4.
75. Calder AA, Loughney AD, Weir CJ, Barber JW. Induction of labour in nulliparous and multiparous women: A UK, multicentre, open-label study of intravaginal misoprostol in comparison with dinoprostone. BJOG 2008;115(10):1279-88.
76. Alfirevic Z, Aflaifel N, Weeks A. Oral misoprostol for induction of labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014;6:CD001338.
77. Wennerholm UB, Hagberg H, Brorsson B, Bergh C. Induction of labor versus expectant management for post-date pregnancy: Is there sufficient evidence for a change in clinical practice? Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2009;88(1):6-17.
78. Daskalakis G, Zacharakis D, Simou M, Pappa P, Detorakis S, Mesogitis S. Induction of labor versus expectant management for pregnancies beyond 41 weeks. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2014;27(2):173-6.
79. Palatnik A, Grobman WA. Induction of labor versus expectant management for women with a prior cesarean delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2015;212(3):358.e1-6.
80. Caughey AB. Induction of labour: Does it increase the risk of cesarean delivery? BJOG 2014;121:658-61.
81. Yang SH, Roh CR, Kim JH. Transvaginal ultrasonography for cervical assessment before induction of labor. J Ultrasound Med 2004;23(3):375-82.
82. Abdul MA, Ibrahim UN, Yusuf MD, Musa H. Efficacy and safety of misoprostol in induction of labour in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. West Afr J Med 2007;26(3):213-6.
83. Vrouenraets FP, Roumen FJ, Dehing CJ, van den Akker ES, Aarts MJ, Scheve EJ. Bishop score and risk of cesarean delivery after induction of labor in nulliparous women. Obstet Gynecol 2005;105(4):690-7.
84. Selo-Ojeme DO, Pisal P, Lawal O, Rogers C, Shah A, Sinha S. A randomised controlled trial of amniotomy and immediate oxytocin infusion versus amniotomy and delayed oxytocin infusion for induction of labour at term. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2009;279(6):813-20.
85. Dekker R. Maternal Age or Pregnancy at Age 35 or Older. Available from: http://www.evidencebasedbirth.com/advanced-maternal-age. [Last accessed on 2016 Mar 28].
86. Gerli S, Favilli A, Giordano C, Bini V, Di Renzo GC. Single indications of induction of labor with prostaglandins and risk of cesarean delivery: A retrospective cohort study. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2013;39:926-31.
87. Levine LD, Hirshberg A, Srinivas SK. Term induction of labor and risk of cesarean delivery by parity. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2014;27(12):1232-6.
88. Thorsell M, LyrenÃ¤s S, Andolf E, Kaijser M. Induction of labor and the risk for emergency cesarean section in nulliparous and multiparous women. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2011;90(10):1094-9.
89. Ault A. American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) 2016 Annual Clinical Meeting, Medscape Medical News Conference News, Induction at 39 Weeks Is Better for Mother and Baby, May 17; 2016.
90. Wing DA. Cervical Ripening and Induction of Labor in Women with a Prior Cesarean Delivery. Available from: http://www.uptodate. com/contents/cervicalripening-and-induction-of-labor-in-women-with-a-prior-cesarean-delivery#H626360154. [Last updated on 2016 Sep 22].
91. Kundodyiwa TW, Alfirevic Z, Weeks AD. Low-dose oral misoprostol for labor induction, a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol 2009;113(2):374-83.
92. Hofmeyr GJ, Gulmezoglu AM. Vaginal misoprostol for cervical ripening and labor induction in late pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000;2:CD000941.
93. Wood S, Cooper S, Ross S. Does induction of labor increase the risk of caesarean section? A systematic review and meta-analysis of trials in women with intact membranes. BJOG Int J Obstet Gynaecol 2014;121(6):674-85.
94. GÃ¼lmezoglu AM, Crowther CA, Middleton P, Heatley E. Induction of labor for improving birth outcomes for women at or beyond term. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012;6:CD004945.
95. Alfirevic Z, Howarth G, Gaussmann A. Oral misoprostol for induction of labor with a viable fetus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000;2:CD001338.
96. Crowley P. Interventions for preventing or improving the outcome of delivery at or beyond term. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000;2:CD000170.
97. Cheng SY, Ming H, Lee JC. Titrated oral compared with vaginal misoprostol for labor induction: A randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 2008;111(1):119-25.
98. Koopmans CM, Bijlenga D, Groena H, Vijgen SM, Aarnoudse JG, Bekedam DJ, et al. Induction of labor versus expectant monitoring for gestational hypertension or mild pre-eclampsia after 36 weeksâ€™ gestation (HYPITAT): A multicentre, open-label randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2009;374(9694):979-88.
99. Pennell CE, Henderson JJ, Oâ€™Neill MJ, McChlery S, Doherty DA, Dickinson JE. Induction of labour in nulliparous women with an unfavourable cervix: A randomised controlled trial comparing double and single balloon catheters and PGE2 gel. BJOG 2009;116(11):1443-52.
100. Bhutto A, Mahesh A, Khan A. Rectal misoprostol versus intravenous syntometrine in active management of third stage of labor in low risk women. Med Channel J 2013;4:40-43.
101. Hermus MA, Verhoeven CJ, Mol BW, de Wolf GS, Fiedeldeij CA. Comparison of induction of labour and expectant management in postterm pregnancy: A matched cohort study. J Midwifery Womens Health 2009;54(5):351-6.
102. Yeast JD, Jones A, Poskin M. Induction of labor and the relationship to cesarean delivery: A review of 7001 consecutive inductions. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999;180(3):628-33.
103. Nooh A, Baghdadi S, Raouf S. Induction of labor: How close to the evidence-based guidelines are we? J Obstet Gynaecol 2005;25(5):451-4.
104. Johnson DP, Davis NR, Brown AJ. Risk of cesarean delivery after induction at term in nulliparous women with an unfavorable cervix. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003;188(6):1565-9.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.