• Nilima R Patil Department of Microbiology, Research Scholar, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, Karad, Maharashtra, India
  • Ghorpade Mv Department of Microbiology, Research Scholar, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, Karad, Maharashtra, India



Nil, Cefoxitin disc diffusion method, mecA, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant S aureus, methicillinsusceptible S aureus


 Objectives: This study was aimed to determine the association between mecA gene and virulence genes such as pvl gene in strains of S. aureus and to determine the prevalence of the pvl gene in S. aureus isolates using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique.

Methods: A total of 200 non-repeated, confirmed clinical isolates of S. aureus were used from various departments. Cefoxitin (30 ug) disc diffusion method was used as phenotypic method for detection of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). We used PCR amplification to test for the pvl and mecA gene in S. aureus isolates.

Results: Of 200 strains of S. aureus isolated in our hospital, 60 (30%) were identified as MRSA based on cefoxitin disc diffusion method. These same 30 isolates were confirmed for mecA gene by PCR. All strains had mecA gene. All mecA positive strains of S. aureus were tested for pvl gene. Of 200 S. aureus, 123 (61.5%) strains were pvl positive. Among which 33 (55%) were pvl positive MRSA and 90 (64.28%) pvl positive methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strains.

Conclusion: The prevalence of the pvl among the MRSA isolates was found relatively higher in number among pus samples which indicate a possible key role of pvl in pathogenesis of pyogenic infections, especially skin and soft tissue infections in community setting.

Author Biography

Nilima R Patil, Department of Microbiology, Research Scholar, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, Karad, Maharashtra, India

Asst. professor, Dept of microbiology


Ito T, Ma XX, Takeuchi F, Okuma K, Yuzawa H, Hiramatsu K, et al. Novel type V staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec driven by a novel cassette chromosome recombinase, ccrC. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2004;48:2637-51.

Korn GP, Martino MD, Mimica IM, Mimica LJ, Chiavone PA, Musolino LR, et al. High frequency of colonization and absence of identifiable risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)in intensive care units in Brazil. Braz J Infect Dis 2001;5:1-7.

Foster TJ. Immune evasion by staphylococci. Nat Rev Microbiol 2005;3:948-58.

Watkins RR, David MZ, Salata RA. Current concepts on the virulence mechanisms of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Med Microbiol 2012;61:1179-93.

Diep BA, Chambers HF, Graber CJ, Szumowski JD, Miller LG, Han LL, et al. Emergence of multidrug-resistant, community-associated, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone USA300 in men who have sex with men. Ann Intern Med 2008;148:249-57.

Gilbert M, MacDonald J, Gregson D, Siushansian J, Zhang K, Elsayed S, et al. Outbreak in alberta of community-acquired (USA300) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in people with a history of drug use, homelessness or incarceration. CMAJ 2006;175:149-54.

Lina G, Piémont Y, Godail-Gamot F, Bes M, Peter MO, Gauduchon V, et al. Involvement of panton-valentine leukocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus in primary skin infections and pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis 1999;29:1128-32.

Vandenesch F, Naimi T, Enright MC, Lina G, Nimmo GR, Heffernan H, et al. Community acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carrying Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes: Worldwide emergence. Emerg Infect Dis 2003;9:978-84.

Gillet Y, Issartel B, Vanhems P, Fournet JC, Lina G, Bes M, et al. Association between Staphylococcus aureus strains carrying gene for panton-valentine leukocidin and highly lethal necrotising pneumonia in young immunocompetent patients. Lancet 2002;359:753-9.

Mehndiratta PL, Bhalla P, Ahmed A, Sharma YD. Molecular typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains by PCR-RFLP of SPA gene: A reference laboratory perspective. Indian J Med Microbiol 2009;27:116-22.

Zhang K, McClure J, Elsayed S, Louie T, Conly J. Novel multiplex PCR assay for characterization and sub typing of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec Types I to V in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Clin Microbiol 2005;43:5026-33.

Touaitia R, Bektache S, Boutefnouchet N, Djahoudi A, Bachtarzi M. Molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical cases in East Algeria. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2017;10:59-61.

Ramdani-Bouguessa N, Bes M, Meugnier H, Forey F, Reverdy ME, Lina G, et al. Detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains resistant to multiple antibiotics and carrying the panton-valentine leukocidin genes in an algiers hospital. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2006;50:1083-5.

Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Zone diameter interpretive standards and equivalent minimal inhibitory concentration (mic) breakpoints for Staphylococcus spp., Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Eighteenth Informational Supplement. CLSI Document. M100-S18. Vol. 208. Wayne, PA: Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute; 2008. p. 48.

Baird D. Staphylococcus: Cluster-forming gram-positive cocci. In: Collee JG, Fraser AG, Marmion BP, Simmons A, editors. Mackie & McCartney Practical Medical Microbiology. 14th ed. New Delhi: Elsevier, A Divisionof Reed Elsevier India Pvt. Limited; 1996.

Patil NR, Gadagil S. Performance of chrom agar medium and conventional methods for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;9:136-9.

Unal S, Werner K, DeGirolami P, Barsanti F, Eliopoulos G. Comparison of tests for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a clinical microbiology laboratory. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1994;38:345-7.

Ausubel FM, Brent R, Kingston R, Moore DE, Seidman JG, Smith JA, et al. Short Protocols in Molecular Biology. 4th ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc.; 1999.

Jonas D, Grundmann H, Hartung D, Daschner FD, Towner KJ. Evaluation of the mecA femB duplex polymerase chain reaction for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1999;18:643-7.

Cabrera EC, Ramirez-Argamosa DT, Rodriguez RD. Prevalence of community-acquired methicillin resistant S. aureus from inmates of the Manila city jail, characterization for SCC mec Type and occurance of PVL gene. Philipp Sci Lett 2010;3:4-12.

Indian Network for Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (INSAR) group, India. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in India: Prevalence & susceptibility pattern. Indian J Med Res 2013;137:363-9.

Pai V, Rao VI, Rao SP. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA] isolates at a tertiary care hospital in mangalore, South India. J Lab Physicians 2010;2:82-4.

Patil NR, Ghorpade MV. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains in tertiary care hospital-a prospective study. World J Pharm Res 2015;4:1681-90.

Kumari N, Mohapatra TM, Singh YI. Prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA] in a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Nepal. J Nepal Med Assoc 2008;47:53-6.

Kulkarni S, Khare A, Kaur DC. Prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus-A study in a tertiary care rural hospital. Indian J Basic Appl Med Res 2014;3:414-21.

Motamedi H, Rahmat Abadi SS, Moosavian SM, Torabi M. The association of panton-valentine leukocidin and mecA genes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from patients referred to educational hospitals in Ahvaz, Iran. Jundishapur J Microbiol 2015;8:e22021.

Melles DC, Gorkink RF, Boelens HA, Snijders SV, Peeters JK, Moorhouse MJ, et al. Natural population dynamics and expansion of pathogenic clones of staphylococcus aureus. J Clin Invest 2004;114:1732-40.

Shashindran N, Nagasundaram N, Thappa DM, Sistla S. Can panton valentine leukocidin gene and clindamycin susceptibility serve as predictors of community origin of MRSA from skin and soft tissue infections? J Clin Diagn Res 2016;10:DC01-4.

McClure JA, Conly JM, Lau V, Elsayed S, Louie T, Hutchins W, et al. Novel multiplex PCR assay for detection of the staphylococcal virulence marker panton-valentine leukocidin genes and simultaneous discrimination of methicillin-susceptible from -resistant staphylococci. J Clin Microbiol 2006;44:1141-4.

Okon KO, Basset P, Uba A, Lin J, Oyawoye B, Shittu AO, et al. Cooccurrence of predominant panton-valentine leukocidin-positive sequence type (ST) 152 and multidrug-resistant ST 241 Staphylococcus aureus clones in Nigerian hospitals. J Clin Microbiol 2009;47:3000-3.

Kaur H, Purwar S, Saini A, Kaur H, Karadesai SG, Kholkute SD, et al. Status of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections and evaluation of PVL producing straSins in Belgaum. J Krishna Inst Med Sci Univ 2012;1:43-51.

D’Souza N, Rodrigues C, Mehta A. Molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with emergence of epidemic clones of sequence Type (ST) 22 and ST 772 in Mumbai, India. J Clin Microbiol 2010;48:1806-11.

Ghebremedhin B, Olugbosi MO, Raji AM, Layer F, Bakare RA, König B, et al. Emergence of a community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain with a unique resistance profile in Southwest Nigeria. J Clin Microbiol 2009;47:2975-80.



How to Cite

Patil, N. R., and G. Mv. “ASSOCIATION OF VIRULENCE FACTOR (PANTON–VALENTINE LEUKOCIDIN) WITH MECA GENE IN STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATES IN TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 11, no. 2, Feb. 2018, pp. 113-6, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2018.v11i2.19080.



Original Article(s)