A GLOBAL PICTURE OF EXTENDED PHARMACY SERVICES, PERCEPTIONS, AND BARRIERS TOWARD ITS PERFORMANCE: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
Â Objective: The aims of this review were to observe extended services performed in the community pharmacy settings, perceptions among community pharmacists (CPs), general practitioners (GPs), and customers of these extended services and barriers toward its performance.
Methods: A literature search was conducted, using Google Scholar as database, searching for full access texts. The inclusive texts fulfilled the inclusion criteria.
Results: A total of 22 texts had been systematically reviewed, noting a wide range of extended services performed in community pharmacy settings. Medication counseling or review and promoting health educations were noted as the most extended services performed. It is also noted that CPs indicated that these extended services could establish working relationship with other health-care professionals. However, it is noted that among the barriers toward extended services were lack of knowledge, skills, and time to perform.
Conclusion: As a conclusion, the community pharmacy practice is evolving, transforming into more patient-oriented even though there are some negative perceptions among the customers and GPs toward these extended services. Barriers to the performance of these extended services should be intervened. Â
2. Clark BE, Mount JK. Pharmacy service orientation: A measure of organizational culture in pharmacy practice sites. Res Social Adm Pharm 2006;2(1):110-28.
3. George PP, Molina JA, Cheah J, Chan SC, Lim BP. The evolving role of the community pharmacist in chronic disease management-a literature review. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2010;39(11):861-7.
4. Sing WS. Pharmacy practice in Malaysia. Malays J Pharm 2001;1:2-8.
5. Egorova SN, Akhmetova T. Pharmaceutical counseling: Between evidence-based medicine and profits. Int J Risk Saf Med 2015;27 Suppl 1:S87-8.
6. Warchal S, Brown D, Tomlin M, Portlock J. Attitudes of successful candidates of supplementary prescribing courses to their training and their extended roles. Pharm J 2006;276:348-52.
7. Ahmad A, Hugtenburg J, Welschen LM, Dekker JM, Nijpels G. Effect of medication review and cognitive behaviour treatment by community pharmacists of patients discharged from the hospital on drug related problems and compliance: Design of a randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health 2010;10:133.
8. Berbatis CG, Sunderland VB, Joyce A, Bulsara M, Mills C. Enhanced pharmacy services, barriers and facilitators in Australiaâ€™s community pharmacies: Australiaâ€™s national pharmacy database project. Int J Pharm Pract 2007;15(3):185-91.
9. Malangu N. The future of community pharmacy practice in South Africa in the light of the proposed new qualification for pharmacists: Implications and challenges. Glob J Health Sci 2014;6(6):226-33.
10. Sadek MM, Elnour AA, Al Kalbani NM, Bhagavathula AS, Baraka MA, Aziz AM, et al. Community pharmacy and the extended community pharmacist practice roles: The UAE experiences. Saudi Pharm J 2016;24(5):563-570.
11. Rayes IK, Hassali MA, Abduelkarem AR. Perception of community pharmacists towards the barriers to enhanced pharmacy services in the healthcare system of Dubai: A quantitative approach. Pharm Pract (Granada) 2015;13(2):506.
12. Poudel A, Khanal S, Kadir A, Palaian S. Perception of Nepalese community pharmacists towards patient counseling and continuing pharmacy education program: A multicentric study. J Clin Diagn Res 2009;3:1408-13.
13. Yamamura S, Yamamoto N, Oide S, Kitazawa S. Current state of community pharmacy in Japan: Practice, research, and future opportunities or challenges. Ann Pharmacother 2006;40:2008-14.
14. Fang Y, Yang S, Zhou S, Jiang M, Liu J. Community pharmacy practice in China: Past, present and future. Int J Clin Pharm 2013;35(4):520-8.
15. Rayes IK, Hassali MA, Abduelkarem AR. The role of pharmacists in developing countries: The current scenario in the United Arab Emirates. Saudi Pharm J 2015;23(5):470-4.
16. Azhar S, Hassali MA, Ibrahim MI, Ahmad M, Masood I, Shafie AA. The role of pharmacists in developing countries: The current scenario in Pakistan. Hum Resour Health 2009;7:54.
17. Wong FY, Chan FW, You JH, Wong EL, Yeoh EK. Patient self-management and pharmacist-led patient self-management in Hong Kong: A focus group study from different healthcare professionalsâ€™ perspectives. BMC Health Serv Res 2011;11:121.
18. Scheerder G, De Coster I, Van Audenhove C. Pharmacistsâ€™ role in depression care: A survey of attitudes, current practices, and barriers. Psychiatr Serv 2008;59(10):1155-60.
19. Wada Y, Wada Y, Ennyu S, Shimokawa KI, Ishii F. Ability of community pharmacists to promote self-care and self-medication by local residents [I]: Improvements in bone mineral density. Drug Discov Ther 2017;11(1):35-40.
20. You JH, Wong FY, Chan FW, Wong EL, Yeoh EK. Public perception on the role of community pharmacists in self-medication and self-care in Hong Kong. BMC Clin Pharmacol 2011;11:19.
21. Salim AM, Elgizoli B. Exploring self-perception of community pharmacists of their professional identity, capabilities, and role expansion. J Res Pharm Pract 2016;5(2):116-20.
22. Rayes IK, Abduelkarem AR. A qualitative study exploring physiciansâ€™ perceptions on the role of community pharmacists in Dubai. Pharm Pract (Granada) 2016;14(3):738.
23. Al-Wazaify M, Albsoul-Younes A. Pharmacy in Jordan. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2005;62(23):2548-51.
24. LalibertÃ© MC, Perreault S, Damestoy N, Lalonde L. Ideal and actual involvement of community pharmacists in health promotion and prevention: A cross-sectional study in Quebec, Canada. BMC Public Health 2012;12:192.
25. Hoti K, Hughes J, Sunderland B. An expanded prescribing role for pharmacists-an Australian perspective. Australas Med J 2011;4(4):236-42.
26. Dennis S, May J, Perkins D, Zwar N, Sibbald B, Hasan I. What evidence is there to support skill mix changes between GPs, pharmacists and practice nurses in the care of elderly people living in the community? Aust N Z Health Policy 2009;6:23.
27. Roberts AS, Benrimoj SI, Chen TF, Williams KA, Aslani P. Practice change in community pharmacy: Quantification of facilitators. Ann Pharmacother 2008;42:861-8.
28. Gray A, Suleman F. Training for clinical pharmacists: Plat du jour or smorgasbord? S Afr Pharm J 2012;79(2):38-40.
29. Christensen DB, Farris KB. Pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies: Practice and research in the US. Ann Pharmacother 2006;40(7-8):1400-6.
30. Smailhodzic E, Hooijsma W, Boonstra A, Langley DJ. Social media use in healthcare: A systematic review of effects on patients and on their relationship with healthcare professionals. BMC Health Serv Res 2016;16:442.
31. Ventola CL. Social media and health care professionals: Benefits, risks, and best practices. Pharm Ther 2014;39(7):491-520.
32. Kristina SA, Thavorncharoensap M, Pongcharoensuk P, Prabandari YS. Impact of smoking cessation training for community pharmacists in Indonesia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2015;16(8):3319-23.
33. Noyce PR. Providing patient care through community pharmacies in the UK: Policy, practice, and research. Ann Pharmacother 2007;41(5):861-8.
34. Bajorek BV, Lemay KS, Magin PJ, Roberts C, Krass I, Armour CL. Preparing pharmacists to deliver a targeted service in hypertension management: Evaluation of an interprofessional training program. BMC Med Educ 2015;15:157.
35. Bugnon O, Hugentobler-HampaÃ¯ D, Berger J, Schneider MP. New roles for community pharmacists in modern health care systems: A challenge for pharmacy education and research. Chimia (Aarau) 2012;66(5):304-7.
36. Chui MA, Stone JA, Odukoya OK, Maxwell L. Facilitating collaboration between pharmacists and physicians using an iterative interview process. J Am Pharm Assoc 2014;54:35-41.
37. Blenkinsopp A, Paxton P, Blenkinsopp J. Symptoms in the Pharmacy: A Guide to the Management of Common Illness. 5th ed. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing; 2005. p. 1-13.
38. Edwards C, Stillman P. Minor Illness or Major Disease? The Clinical Pharmacist in the Community. 4th ed. London: Pharmaceutical Press; 2006. p. 1-10.
39. Rutter P. Community Pharmacy: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, An Imprint of Elsevier Limited; 2004. p. 9-11.
40. Rutter PM, Horsley E, Brown DT. Evaluation of community pharmacistsâ€™ recommendations to standardized patient scenarios. Ann Pharmacother 2004;38(6):1080-5.
41. McCallian DJ, Cheigh NH. The pharmacistâ€™s role in self-care. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash) 2002;42 5 Suppl 1:S40-1.
42. Buring SM, Kirby J, Conrad WF. A structured approach for teaching students to counsel self-care patients. Am J Pharm Educ 2007;71(1):8.
43. Hu JH. Integrated Pharmaceutical Care. 1st ed. Shanghai: The Second Military Medical University Press; 2001.
44. Editorial Board. Temporary regulations of pharmacy administration for medical institutions. Chin Hosp Pharm J 2002;4:2-7.
45. BPS. Board of Pharmacy Specialities. Available from: http://www.bpsweb.org.
46. Taylor JG, Joubert R. Pharmacist-led minor ailment programs: A Canadian perspective. Int J Gen Med 2016;9:291-302.
47. Mehuys E, Van Bortel L, De Bolle L, Van Tongelen I, Annemans L, Remon JP, et al. Effectiveness of a community pharmacist intervention in diabetes care: A randomized controlled trial. J Clin Pharm Ther 2011;36(5):602-13.
48. Nola KM, Gourley DR, Portner TS, Gourley GK, Solomon DK, Elam M, et al. Clinical and humanistic outcomes of a lipid management program in the community pharmacy setting. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash) 2000;40(2):166-73.
49. Morrison D, McLoone P, Brosnahan N, McCombie L, Smith A, Gordon J. A community pharmacy weight management programme: An evaluation of effectiveness. BMC Public Health 2013;13:282.
50. Eickhoff C, Schulz M. Pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies: Practice and research in Germany. Ann Pharmacother 2006;40(4):729-35.
51. Krass I, Armour CL, Mitchell B, Brillant M, Dienaar R, Hughes J, et al. The pharmacy diabetes care program: Assessment of a community pharmacy diabetes service model in Australia. Diabet Med 2007;24(6):677-83.
52. Kamei M, Teshima K, Fukushima N, Nakamura T. Investigation of patientsâ€™ demand for community pharmacies: Relationship between pharmacy services and patient satisfaction. Yakugaku Zasshi 2001;121(3):215-20.
53. Waszyk-Nowaczyk M, Nowaczyk P, Simon M. Physiciansâ€™ and patientsâ€™ valuation of pharmaceutical care implementation in Poznan (Poland) community pharmacies. Saudi Pharm J 2014;22(6):537-44.
54. Snyder ME, Zillich AJ, Primack BA, Rice KR, Somma McGivney MA, Pringle JL, et al. Exploring successful community pharmacist-physician collaborative working relationships using mixed methods. Res Social Adm Pharm 2010;6(4):307-23.
55. Sarriff A, Nordin N, Hassali MA. STARZ-DRP: A step by step approach for pharmacy triage services. Malays J Pharm 2011;1(9):311-26.
56. Detoni KB, do Nascimento MM, Oliveira IV, Alves MR, Gonzales MM, Ramalho-De-Oliveira D. Comprehensive medication management services in a Brazilian specialty pharmacy: A qualitative assessment. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017;9(3):227-32.
57. Nasution A, Syed Sulaiman SA, Shafie AA. Pharmacistsâ€™ perception of their role and assessment of clinical pharmacy education to improve clinical pharmacy services in Indonesian hospitals. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6(11):177-80.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.