REVERSION OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE WITH BETA-LACTAMASE INHIBITOR FROM MEDICINAL PLANTS
Â Objective: Screening of medicinal plants for the presence of beta-lactamase inhibitor identified three plants; Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica, and Ocimum tenuiflorum, extracts of which inhibit beta-lactamase enzyme in vitro. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare beta-lactamase inhibiting potential of these plant extracts.
Methods: Extracts of these plants were prepared with 6 solvents of different polarity. Beta-lactamase inhibition study was performed using antibiotic-resistant bacteria in bioassay and by micro-iodometric assay. Multidrug-resistant clinical strains of Escherichia coli and laboratory strain with plasmid carrying beta-lactamase gene as positive control were used.
Results: Our results from bioassay, as well as micro-iodometric assay for enzyme activity, confirmed the presence of beta-lactamase inhibitor in these plant extracts. Among the extracts made by different solvents, hexane and ethyl acetate extract of T. chebula, hexane extract of T. bellirica, and all extracts of O. tenuiflorum except dichloromethane, possessed beta-lactamase inhibitor. Multidrug-resistant clinical isolate of E. coli AIIMS-1 could be reverted by applying 50 Î¼g/Î¼l of extract of all the medicinal plants. The micro-iodometric result showed highest beta-lactamase inhibition with O. tenuiflorum extracts. Comparative evaluation of the O. tenuiflorum extracts with increasing concentration of inhibitor suggests that ethyl acetate extract of O. tenuiflorum contains the highest inhibition potential, which is comparable with clavulanic acid.
Conclusion: The results demonstrated that the ethyl acetate extract of O. tenuiflorum contain the highest level of beta-lactamase inhibitor, which in the future can be used as an alternative to synthetic beta-lactamase inhibitors that are presently being used to control beta-lactam antibiotic resistance
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